Japanese grammar is very complicated, and is almost opposing English's grammar.
This thread I think is very big to cover, so maybe I will cover a sentence pattern every couple of days or so... so maybe then if you have questions you may ask me.
Any questions to me, please quote me so that I am notify by my e-mail. Otherwise I might be slow in answer.
Ok, so today we will go over how to give and receive things in Japanese.
in Japanese, there is an idea that two people are either above, below, or at same level in status in society. They are to speak with each other in a way to fit that relationships.
There are three gives (from one person to another)
さしあげる sashi ageru
the way they are used differently, is when you are giving to someone below you, or you want to make them mad or feel like they are below you, you use "yaru"
ex. ３分だけやるから早くしろ sanpun dake yaru kara hayaku shiro "I will give you 3 minutes, so do it quickly! (mean way)" (my brother said to me the other day... and I was mad and ignore him)
You use "ageru" when normally saying you will give something to someone.
ex. 腹減ってたら、お菓子あげるよ hara hettetara, okashi ageru yo "If you are hungry, I will give you a snack"
"sashi ageru" is for like your boss in company, or maybe a strict teacher (like me, hahaha) who is not very friendly... anyone who you think would be mad if you don't use words to show you are below they are...
ex. 詰まらない物ですが、(部長に)海外旅行のお土産を差し上げます tsumaranai mono desu ga, (buchou ni) kaigai ryokou no omiyage wo sashi agemasu. "This is not interesting thing, but I will give you the souvenir of my overseas vacation."
these all things the speaker, or the speaker group give
but if someone gave to speaker, then we use different word...
kureru = same or below speaker in level person gave to speaker.
ex. 友達が誕生日プレゼントをくれた tomodachi ga tanjoubi purezento wo kureta "My friend gave me a birthday present"
kudasaru = someone of higher level gave to speaker.
ex. 神様が私達に永久の愛をくださいました kamisama ga watashitachi ni towa no ai wo kudasaimashita "God gave us all eternal love"
all the give verbs, particle for subject is "ga"... for the receive person is "ni", however if the receive person is understood, like "I will give to you" and you are talking to receiving person, there is no need to say "[you] ni" because it is understood... only maybe for emphasize that you give to them.
Then for kureru and kudasaru, the "ni" is always me or us, so it is mostly not inserted, unless empasize.
.... tired... maybe later I write more... good night
to receive is two
morau is when you are the same or above the person you are going to receive from, when talking about some other people, you usually always use morau.
itadaku is when you receive something from someone above.
the particles for it is "ga" for receiver, and "ni" or "kara" for the person receiver is receiving from and "wo" is for the thing being received
敬祐が健三に本をもらった Keisuke ga Kenzou ni hon wo moratta "Keisuke received a book from Kenzou."
先生が生徒に花をもらった Sensei ga seito ni hana wo moratta "Teacher received a flower from student."
生徒が先生に教科書をいただきました Seito ga sensei ni kyoukasho wo itadakimashita "Student received textbook from Teacher. (who is above student)"
And I notice a lot of people in subtitle don't explain or explain shortly what "itadakimasu" at beginning of meals is.
is same word, it means "I will receive" (from someone/something higher than me, or someone I want to be humble to) (talking about meal or drink)
Some people think of itadakimasu as say thank you to all people who made possible to eat that food, like man who raise cows, man who packes meat, man who sells meat, father who works for money for meat, mother who cooks meat.
Some people think of itadakimasu as say thank you to God for same reasons as above.
That is what itadakimasu means.