Jiang Wei (202 - 264) was a military general and later regent of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms era of China. He was originally a Cao Wei middle-level military officer, but because his mother was captured by Shu Han strategist Zhuge Liang, Jiang Wei joined him on Zhuge's first Northern Expedition against Cao Wei in 228. Zhuge Liang immediately made him an army commander due to his military capability and resourcefulness. He eventually rose through the ranks during the regencies of Zhuge Liang and of Zhuge Liang's successors Jiang Wan and Fei Yi to eventually become Fei Yi's chief assistant. After Fei Yi's death in 253, he succeeded to Fei Yi's position, but did not have the power that Fei Yi had, as he apparently became in charge largely only of military matters -- and therefore was only arguably a regent.
Reviving Zhuge Liang's campaigns against Cao Wei (which Jiang Wan and Fei Yi had largely abandoned), Jiang Wei made a number of incursions against Wei -- one in coordination with Eastern Wu's regent Zhuge Ke (Zhuge Liang's nephew) -- but each had to be abandoned due to the inadequate food supplies or due to battlefield losses, and these campaigns greatly drained Shu Han's resources. In 263, Wei, led by Deng Ai and Zhong Hui, conquered Shu Han. Jiang Wei tried to restore the kingdom by persuading Zhong Hui to declare a rebellion against the de facto Cao Wei ruler Sima Zhao, Zhong Hui agreed but after he did so, Zhong's own soldiers rebelled against him and Jiang Wei and Zhong Hui were killed in battle.
(Online/Offline) !~☯~!I'm back for now!~☯~!
Jiang Ziya[姜子牙](Taigong Wang) [太公望],,
His other name is "Lu Wang" [呂望]
Jiang Ziya [姜子牙], was a Chinese historical and legendary figure who resided next to the Weishui River about 3,000 years ago. The region was the feudal estate of King Wen of Zhou. Jiang Ziya knew King Wen was very ambitious, so he hoped to get the king's attention and gain a position in his court.
He often went angling at the Weishui River, but he would fish in a bizarre way. He hung a straight hook, with no bait, three feet above the water. He over and over again said to himself, "Fish, if you are desperate to live, come and gulp down the hook by yourself."
Word of his outlandish way of fishing spread and it soon reached King Wen, who sent a soldier to bring Jiang to him. Jiang noticed the soldier coming, but paid no attention to him. He just continued with his fishing, and was soliloquising, "Fishing, fishing, no fish has been hooked—but shrimp is up to tomfoolery." The soldier reported this back to King Wen, who became more interested in Jiang.
King Wen then sent a bureaucrat to invite Jiang to appear at court. But again Jiang paid no attention to the invitation. He simply carried on fishing, saying, "Fishing, fishing, the big fish has not been hooked—but a small one is up to mischief."
Then King Wen went by himself and greeted him courteously and then asked:" Do you take pleasure in fishing?" Jiang said:" Man of true worth takes pleasure in realizing his ambitions; the common man takes pleasure in doing his best for his affairs. My fishing is very much like it."
After conversations King Wen realized Jiang might be a great genius so he went to invite Jiang personally, and brought many magnificent gifts with him. Jiang saw the king's earnest interest in him and agreed to work for him.
Jiang aided King Wen and his son in their overthrow of the Shang Dynasty; they established the Zhou Dynasty in its stead. Jiang was given the title hao (roughly analogous to a European marquis, although it can also mean "lord" or "nobleman" in a generic sense) of Taigong so people called him Jiang Taigongwang. This was later shortened to Jiang Taigong. His treatise on military strategy, Six Secret Strategic Teachings, is considered one of the Seven Military Classics of Ancient China.
As the most notably Prime Minister, he evidentially declared as "the master of strategy"--resulting in the Zhou government growing far stronger than that of Shang Dynasty as the years elapsed.
Jiang Ziya's seventh generation descendant (his great-grandson's great-grandson's son) was Jiang Chi (姜赤). Jiang Chi had a great-grandson named Shi (傒), who was given a piece of land in Shandong province called "Lu" (盧). He took his surname from the land. All Chinese with the last name Lu (盧) can trace their ancestry back to Jiang Ziya.
In modern Jiang Ziya is regarded as one of the greatest strategists in both Chinese history, alongside Zhang Liang, and the world.
+In popular culture
He is a prominent character in the popular Chinese classic novel Creation of the Gods (封神演義).
There are two xiehouyu about him:
Grand Duke Jiang fishes - those who are willing jump at the bait (姜太公釣魚──願者上鉤), which means "put one's own head in the noose".
Grand Duke Jiang investiture the gods - omitting himself (姜太公封神──漏咗自己), which means "leave out oneself".
In the scenario "Chinese Unification" of the Civilization IV: Warlords expansion pack, Jiang Ziya is the leader of the State of Qi.
The protagonist of Hoshin Engi is based on Jiang Ziya.
Jiang Ziya is also Da Ji's arch-rival (Jiang Ziya never think of Da Ji as his rival while Da Ji herself always think that Jiang Ziya is).
Jiang Ziya is a playable character in Koei's Warriors Orochi 2. In the game he is called Taigong Wang. Unlike in history he portrays as a young and handsome man. The reason for his design as a young and handsome man maybe to make him more of "arch-rival" to Da Ji as she is always portrayed as a young and beautiful woman.
P.S.:: In Chinese History,, Taigong Wang actually ish an old man with white hair o.O
Big Bang <33
Nuwa the Creation of God
Nuwa is the God of Creation in the Chinese Myth,,
She is a "Human head with Snake Body" Goddess,,
According to her myth,, Nuwa was lonely from travelings,,
So 1 day, she got an idea from her shade in the water,,
She took Muds and create a human-like thing,,
She called it "HUMAN",,
When she put the Human on the land,, It walks!
Nuwa very happy and she created more and more,,
Then she thought Muds are too tired for her to keep making Humans,
So she used Grasses and tied them up like a human-like,,
and put muds on them,,,
Nuwa knew that Human are not gods,,
So then she tried to find a way that human won't be existence,,
And that's how Nuwa called as "Mother-figure","Creation of God", etc,,
+Nuwa was sister to Fu Yi [伏羲] according to the Myth,,
Nuwa fixed the Sky
According to the "Si ji bou san wang bun ji"[史記補三皇本紀],,
Cause of the Water god and Fire god against each other,,
The water god won,,
So the Fire god got mad and used his head bangs
around the West World of Bu Zhou San[不周山]'s pillar,,
And the sky was destoryed,,,
Nuwa saw it and she didn't want her "Humans" take the disaster,,
Soo she made "5 color stone"[五色石] to save the human and fix the sky!!
According to San Hai Jin[山海經],, after Nuwa had died,,
She used her Stomach to created 10 gods,,
They went to the West Side and protected it,,
Some ancient people thoughts,,
In Myth said that Nuwa's body god ate from Human after she died,,
The Ancient people thought that when they ate their ancestors' body
means to got protected from their Repected people,,
After Nuwa's soul when to the sky,, She became the goddess!!
*P.S. Thats what i learned it when I still at Hong Kong o.o"
So,, Actually that all what it is ,,
Big Bang <33
Mind if you guys start making SW bibliography?
Update update update..........how much did I do?
You can start one if you want?
Tree of Savior! Add me!
Chancellor of Shu Han
Yinan, Shandong, China
Died 234, aged 52-53
Wuzhang Plains, Shaanxi, China
Simplified Chinese 诸葛亮
Traditional Chinese 諸葛亮
Pinyin Zhūgé Liàng
Wade-Giles Chu-ko Liang
Courtesy name Kongming (孔明)
Posthumous name Marquis Zhongwu (忠武侯)
Other names Wòlóng (臥龍) Crouching Dragon
Fúlóng (伏龍) Sleeping Dragon
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhuge (諸葛).
Zhuge Liang (traditional Chinese: 諸葛亮; simplified Chinese: 诸葛亮; pinyin: Zhūgě Liàng, 181–234) was Chancellor of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He is often recognised as the greatest and most accomplished strategist of his era.
Often depicted wearing a robe and holding a fan made of crane feathers, Zhuge was not only an important military strategist and statesman; he was also an accomplished scholar and inventor. His reputation as an intelligent and learned scholar grew even while he was living in relative seclusion, earning him the nickname "Wòlóng" (臥龍, or "Sleeping Dragon").
Zhuge is an uncommon two-character compound family name. His name – even his surname alone – has become synonymous with intelligence and tactics in Chinese culture.Contents
1.1 Early life
1.2 Rise to prominence
1.3 Southern Expedition
1.4 Northern Expeditions
2 Romance of the Three Kingdoms
2.1 Using straw boats to borrow arrows
2.2 Stone Sentinel Maze
2.3 Empty Fort Strategy
Zhuge Liang was born in Yangdu County (陽都) in Langya Commandery (琅琊), at present-day Yinan County (沂南), Shandong Province. He was the second of three brothers and became orphaned at an early age; his mother died when he was nine, and his father when he was twelve. His uncle raised him and his siblings. When Cao Cao invaded Shandong in 195, his family was forced to flee south and his uncle soon died of illness.
Both his sisters were married into notable families with numerous relations in the area. For ten years he resided in Longzhong Commandery (隆中; in present-day Hubei province) with his brothers Zhuge Jin and Zhuge Jun (諸葛均), leading a simple peasant life – farming by day and studying at night.
The Temple of the Marquis of Wu in Chengdu, a temple worshipping Zhuge Liang.
He developed friendships among the local intelligentsia. His reputation grew and he was nicknamed the "Crouching (or Sleeping) Dragon", an indication of his wisdom in various fields as his peers view him. He married the daughter of Huang Chengyan, whose wife was the sister of Lady Cai (wife of the warlord Liu Biao and sister of Cai Mao). The name of Zhuge Liang's wife is rumored to be Huang Yueying. The Huang family was also related to several other established clans in the region.
Rise to prominence
The warlord Liu Bei resided in the neighboring city Xiangyang under his distant relative and the governor of the Jing Province (荊州), Liu Biao. Zhuge Liang joined Liu Bei in 207 only after Liu Bei visited him personally thrice. Zhuge Liang presented his Longzhong Plan to Liu Bei and travelled to Eastern Wu to form an alliance between Liu Bei and its ruler Sun Quan.
In the Battle of Red Cliffs of 208, the allied armies of Liu Bei and Sun Quan defeated Cao Cao, thus enabling Liu Bei to establish his own territories. The historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms described Zhuge Liang calling forth a southeastern wind to enhance Huang Gai's fire-attack by spreading the flames across Cao Cao's ships. In reality, however, it was Zhou Yu who masterminded the fire attack. In folklore, the wind is attributed to either Zhuge Liang's magic or his ability to make accurate predictions of the weather.
The alliance with Sun Quan was broken when the Wu general Lü Meng invaded Jing Province in 219 while its defender Guan Yu was at the Battle of Fancheng. Guan Yu was captured by the Wu forces and decapitated. Liu Bei was infuriated by the execution of his longtime comrade and he ignored all advice from his subjects to hold back. He led an army to attack Eastern Wu and was defeated in the ensuing Battle of Yiling by Lu Xun. Liu died in the fortress of Baidicheng after a hasty and humiliating retreat to his own borders. After the death of Liu Bei, Zhuge Liang became the chancellor of Shu Han under Liu Shan, Liu Bei's son. He reaffirmed the alliance with Eastern Wu. Despite Liu Bei's request that Zhuge Liang assume control of Shu Han if Liu Shan proved to be an incompetent leader, Zhuge declined the offer and continued to serve Liu Shan with unwavering loyalty.
Main article: Zhuge Liang's Southern Campaign
During his reign as regent, Zhuge Liang set Shu Han's objective as to restore the Han Dynasty. The Han Dynasty had been usurped by Cao Wei from Shu's point of view. Zhuge Liang felt that in order to attack Wei, a complete unification of Shu-Han is first needed. He was worried that the Nanman tribes in the south might rise in rebellion and press into areas surrounding the capital city of Chengdu while he was leading the army to attack Cao Wei in the north. Zhuge Liang decided to pacify the southern tribes first.
Ma Su, brother of Ma Liang, proposed that Zhuge Liang should attempt to win the hearts of the Nanman peoples and rally their support instead of using military force to subdue all of them. Zhuge Liang heeded Ma's suggestion and defeated the rebel leader, Meng Huo, seven different times. He released Meng each time in order to achieve Meng's genuine surrender.
Meng Huo agreed to join Zhuge Liang in a genuine acquiescence. Zhuge Liang appointed him as governor of the region to keep the populace content and secure the southern Shu border. This would ensure that the future Northern Expeditions would proceed without internal disruptions. Zhuge Liang also obtained resources from the south, and after this, Zhuge Liang made his moves north.
Main article: Zhuge Liang's Northern Expeditions
From 228 until his death in 234, Zhuge Liang launched five Northern Expeditions against Cao Wei, but all except one failed. The failure was usually caused by the shortage or exhaustion of food supplies rather than defeat on the battlefield. His only permanent gain was the addition of the Wudu (武都) and Yinping (陰平) prefectures as well as relocating Wei citizens to Shu on occasion.
During the first Northern Expedition, Zhuge Liang persuaded Jiang Wei of Cao Wei to defect to Shu Han. Jiang Wei would become one of the prominent Shu generals and inherit Zhuge Liang's ideals. On the fifth expedition, Zhuge died of illness in the camp in the Battle of Wuzhang Plains at the age of 54. On Zhuge's recommendation, Liu Shan commissioned Jiang Wan to succeed him as regent.
In Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Zhuge Liang attempted to extend his lifespan by twelve years through a ritual. He failed when the ritual was disturbed by Wei Yan, who rushed in to warn about the advance of the Wei army.. The novel also related a story of Zhuge Liang passing the 24 Volumes on Military Strategy (兵法二十四篇) to Jiang Wei prior to his death.
Romance of the Three Kingdoms
The wisdom and achievements of Zhuge Liang were popularised by Romance of the Three Kingdoms attributed to Luo Guanzhong more than a millennium after the Three Kingdoms era ended. The Romance of the Three Kingdoms itself draws from historical sources, including Chen Shou's Records of Three Kingdoms. Other major influences include Liu Yiqing's Shishuo xinyu or A New Account of Tales of the World, published in 430, and the Sanguozhi pinghua, a chronological collection of eighty fictional sketches starting with the peach garden oath and ending with Zhuge Liang's death.
Several accounts (in relation to Zhuge Liang) contained in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms which have been considered fictitious are:
Using straw boats to borrow arrows
Before the Battle of Red Cliffs, Zhuge Liang visited the Wu camp to assist Zhou Yu. Zhou Yu saw Zhuge Liang as a threat to Eastern Wu and was also jealous of Zhuge Liang's talent. He assigned Zhuge Liang the task of making 100,000 arrows in ten days or face execution for failure in duties under military law. Zhuge Liang promised that he will finish this seemingly impossible task in three days. He requested 20 large boats, each manned by a few soldiers and filled with straw human-like figures. Before dawn, with river fog cloaking his movements, Zhuge Liang deployed his ships. He ordered his soldiers to beat war drums and shout orders so as to imitate the noise of an attack.
Upon hearing the drums, the Wei soldiers rushed out to meet the "attack".
Zhuge Liang drank wine with Lu Su on one of the boats. The Wei soldiers were unable to see through the fog and fired volleys of arrows at the sound of the drums. The straw figures were soon penetrated by many arrows, which became stuck in the straw. Zhuge Liang returned to Wu in triumph.
After removing the arrows from the straw figures' bodies, Zhuge Liang discovered there were over 100,000 arrows.
The Romance of the Three Kingdoms records this event, whereas no such account can be found in the historical accounts. The historical accounts do record the same strategem being performed by Sun Quan in the Battle of Ruxu.
Stone Sentinel Maze
See also: Stone Sentinel Maze
In Chapter 84, as Lu Xun pursued the fleeing Liu Bei after the Battle of Yiling, he felt a strong enemy presence near Baidicheng and cautioned his army for possible ambush. He sent scouts ahead, who reported that the area was empty except for some scattered piles of stones. Bewildered, he asked one of the locals, who answered that Qi started to emerge from the area after Zhuge Liang had arranged the stones there. Lu Xun personally inspected the area and determined that the array was only a petty display of deception. He led a few cavaliers into the array. Just as he was about to come out, a strong gust of wind blew. Dust-storms shadowed the sky and the stones became swords, mountainous piles of dirt emerged while the waves of the Yangtze River sounded like swords and drums. Lu Xun exclaimed, "I have fallen into Zhuge's trap!" and attempted to exit to no avail.
Suddenly, Lu Xun saw an old man standing before him, who asked him if he needed assistance in getting out of the array. Lu Xun followed the man and exited the maze unharmed. The old man identified himself as Zhuge Liang's father-in-law Huang Chengyan. Huang explained that the array is constructed using the ideas of the Bagua. Huang Chengyan said that Zhuge Liang had predicted that a Wu general would chance upon this maze when he first constructed the structure. Zhuge asked Huang Chengyan not to lead the general out when that happens. Lu Xun immediately dismounted from his horse and thanked Huang Chengyan. When he returned to his camp, he exclaimed that he could never beat Zhuge Liang in intelligence.
Empty Fort Strategy
See also: Empty Fort Strategy
During the first Northern Expedition, Zhuge Liang's efforts to capture Chang'an were undermined by the loss at the Battle of Jieting. With the loss of Jieting, Zhuge Liang's current location, Xicheng (西城), was in great danger. With the army deployed elsewhere and left with only a handful of civilian officers in the city, Zhuge Liang decided to use a ploy to ward off the approaching Wei army.
Zhuge Liang ordered all the city gates to be opened and had two soldiers sweeping the roads while he sat high up on the gates calmly playing his zither with two children beside him. When the Cao Wei commander Sima Yi approached the fort with the Wei military, he was uncertain by the scene, and, assuming there was an ambush waiting for his army, retreated his troops.
Zhuge Liang later told the bewildered civil officers that the strategy only worked because Sima Yi was suspicious by nature. Sima had personally witnessed the success of Zhuge Liang's highly effective ambushing and misdirection tactics many times before so he probably felt suspicious when he saw the open scene before him just now. Besides, Zhuge Liang had a reputation as a keen but extremely careful military tactician who rarely took risks. Zhuge Liang's meticulousness, coupled with Sima Yi's suspicions, led Sima Yi to the conclusion that the seemingly empty fort had a hidden ambush inside. It is unlikely the same strategy would have worked on someone else. Indeed, Sima Yi's son Sima Zhao saw through the ruse immediately and advised his father against retreat.
According to Professor Yi Zhongtian, this event could not have taken place due to these reasons; Firstly, Sima Yi was not present at the site where this event took place as he was stationed far away in Wancheng (宛城) according to historical records. Secondly, it was impossible to have gotten to such close proximity to Zhuge Liang to watch his facial expressions and hear him play the zither clearly and if so, the Wei army could have ordered an archer to shoot down Zhuge Liang. Thirdly, based on Sima Yi’s expertise in military strategy, Sima Yi would possibly have ordered his army to surround the city and not attack even if he believed that there was an ambush inside, to verify that his assumption was true.
A Zhuge Nu.
Zhuge Liang's name is synonymous with wisdom in the Chinese language. He was believed to be the inventor of the Mantou, the landmine and a mysterious, efficient automatic transportation device (initially used for grain) described as a "wooden ox and flowing horse" (木牛流馬), which is sometimes identified with the wheelbarrow. Although he is often credited with the invention of the repeating crossbow which is named after him, called Zhuge Nu, i.e. Zhuge Crossbow, this type of semi-automatic crossbow is actually an improved version of a model that first appeared during the Warring States Period (though there is debate whether the original warring states bow was semi-automatic, or rather shot multiple bolts at once). Nevertheless, Zhuge Liang's version could shoot further and faster. He is also credited for constructing the mysterious Stone Sentinel Maze, an array of stone piles that is said to produce supernatural phenomenon, located near Baidicheng. An early type of hot air balloon used for military signalling called the Kongming lantern is also named after him.
Some books popularly attributed to Zhuge Liang can be found today. For example, the Thirty-Six Stratagems, and Mastering the Art of War (not to be confused with Sun Tzu's The Art of War) are two of Zhuge's works that are generally available. Supposedly, his mastery of infantry and cavalry formation tactics based upon the Taoist I-Ching were unrivalled. His petition Chu Shi Biao was written prior to the Northern Campaigns and it provided a salutary reflection of Zhuge Liang's unwavering loyalty to Shu-Han. The petition moved readers to tears.
He is also the subject of many Chinese literary works. A poem by Du Fu, one of the most prolific poets from the Tang Dynasty, was written in memory of Zhuge Liang and his unwavering dedication to his cause, against overwhelming odds. Some historians believe that Du Fu had compared himself with Zhuge Liang in the poem. The full text is:蜀相 （also 武侯祠 ）
長使英雄淚滿襟 Premier of Shu (also Temple of the Marquis of Wu)
Where to seek the temple of the noble Premier?
In the deep pine forests outside the City of Silk:
Where grass-covered steps mirror the colours of spring,
And among the leaves orioles empty songs sing.
Three visits brought him the weight of the world;
Two emperors he served with one heart.
Passing ere his quest was complete,
Tears damp the robes of heroes ever since.
Bai Chongxi, a military leader of the Republic of China and warlord from Guangxi province, earned the laudatory nickname "Little Zhuge" due to his tactical decisions in the Second Sino-Japanese War during World War II.
Takenaka Shigeharu, a Sengoku Period Samurai who served under Toyotomi Hideyoshi, was often likened to Zhuge Liang for his reputation as an exceptional strategist. There is also a fictional account of Shigeharu entering Hideyoshi's service after the latter visited him thrice in a manner reminiscent of Liu Bei's three visits.
Do i really need to delete my Profile.
I was suprised that noboby (Lu-Bu-The-Terrible) didnt already put this down so i am going to add it for him.
Lü Bu (died November 7, 198) was a military general and later a minor warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty. According to the Records of Three Kingdoms, Lü Bu was highly-skilled in horse-riding and archery, and was thus nicknamed "Flying General". His image as a handsome and mighty warrior wearing a pheasant-tailed headdress and wielding a ji known as the "Sky Piercer" (Chinese: 方天畫戟; pinyin: Fāngtiān Huàjǐ) on top of his steed Red Hare was later popularized by the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms. In the story, he is considered the single most powerful warrior in all of China and comparable to the Greek hero Achilles in prowess.[original research?]
Besides being matchless on the battlefield, especially in man-on-man duels, Lü Bu was also notorious for having betrayed and slain two separate lords (who were both his adoptive fathers). He was perhaps most well-known for his amorous relationship with the possibly fictional Diao Chan, which led to his slaying of Dong Zhuo, the tyrannical warlord who held the Emperor Xian in control as a puppet ruler. Throughout the semi-fictional novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Lü has been depicted as a ruthless and impulsive warrior who has no sense of loyalty and sympathy.
Lü Bu was eventually defeated and captured by Cao Cao at the Battle of Xiapi. At Liu Bei's suggestion, Cao Cao had Lü Bu killed by hanging.
Service under Ding Yuan
Lü Bu was a local of the county of Jiuyuan in the Wuyuan Commandery (a district of present day Baotou, Inner Mongolia). He started his career as the Chief Secretary under the governor of Bing Province (并州), Ding Yuan. In 189, Ding led his troops into the capital city of Luoyang to assist General-in-Chief He Jin in eliminating the powerful eunuch faction. He Jin was assassinated and the Luoyang plunged into chaos when imperial forces and the eunuch faction clashed.
Service under Dong Zhuo
Dong Zhuo, a warlord from Liang Province who was summoned to Luoyang by He Jin, seized control of the armed forces of Luoyang and rose to power. Lü Bu betrayed and killed Ding Yuan, severed Ding's head and presented it to Dong Zhuo as a gesture of allegiance. Dong also acknowledged Lü as his foster son. To consolidate power, Dong deposed Emperor Shao and replaced him with Emperor Xian, who was actually a puppet ruler under his control, and moved the capital city to Chang'an in the west. Dong's evident intention of usurping state power, compounded by his tyranny and cruelty, angered many loyalists and placed him in a vulnerable position to political assassination. For his personal safety, Dong Zhuo relied heavily on Lü Bu, who was promoted to "Knight General" (中郎將). Lü Bu would be at Dong's side almost all the time as a personal bodyguard.
In his frequent bouts of temper, Dong would hurl a halberd at Lü Bu to vent his frustration. Lü dodged the weapons easily and Dong's fury subsided quickly. Nevertheless, Lü bore a furtive displeasure towards his foster father for that. Moreover, as Lü Bu had access to Dong's residence, he started an amorous affair with one of Dong's servant maids, and was constantly in fear of being discovered by his foster father.
In 192, with encouragement from Interior Minister Wang Yun, Lü Bu decided to kill Dong Zhuo. He brought a dozen trusted men, including Cavalry Captain Li Su, to greet Dong Zhuo one morning at the palace gate. Li stabbed Dong and Dong cried out for Lü Bu to save him. However, Lü said, "This is an imperial order." and delivered a fatal blow to Dong Zhuo.
Roaming the land
After Dong Zhuo's death, the central government did not grant amnesty to Dong's former followers and they attacked Chang'an. Within ten days, Chang'an fell to Dong's subordinates Li Jue and Guo Si, and Lü Bu was forced to flee after his defeat. State power fell into the hands of Dong's followers once more. Lü Bu went to the warlord Yuan Shu in Yangzhou and requested to join Yuan. Yuan refused to accept Lü Bu as he was deterred by Lü's fickleness.
Lü Bu then headed north to join Yuan Shao and he helped Yuan defeat the bandit army led by Zhang Yan. As Lü Bu's force gradually grew in strength, Yuan Shao began to see him as a potential threat. Lü was aware of that himself so he left Yuan Shao swiftly and avoided the assassins Yuan sent after him.
In 194, when Cao Cao was away on a campaign against Tao Qian in Xu Province, his subordinates Zhang Miao and Chen Gong rebelled and allowed Lü Bu's forces to take over Yan Province. Gao Shun helped Lü defeat and drive away Cao Cao's army. When Cao heard that Yan Province had fallen into Lü Bu's hands, he turned back and besieged Lü at Puyang. After more than 100 days of stalemate, a famine forced Lü Bu to abandon the city.
Occupation of Xu Province
After abandoning Puyang, Lü Bu headed for Xu Province to seek refuge under the new governor Liu Bei. In 196, Lü turned against Liu and seized the city of Xiapi, effectively taking over governorship of Xu Province, forcing Liu to move to the nearby town of Xiaopei (小沛; present-day Pei County, Anhui).
In the same year, Yuan Shu sent an army led by Ji Ling to attack Liu Bei. As Lü Bu feared that the loss of Xiaopei would expose him to attack from Yuan, he led his men to lay camp south of Xiaopei, where he sent invitations for Liu Bei and Ji Ling to meet him. Lü Bu urged both sides to make peace and extracted promises from them to withdraw their troops if he could hit the sharp tongue of a halberd, erected at the gate, with an arrow. From afar, Lü fired an arrow and it came squarely on its target. Both Liu Bei and Ji Ling kept their promises and retreated.
To counter Cao Cao's rising power, Yuan Shu offered to form an alliance with Lü Bu. Lü agreed initially but regretted afterwards. He sent his men to retrieve his daughter (born to Lady Yan), who was on her way to be married to Yuan's son. Lü also imprisoned Yuan Shu's envoy and sent the captive to Cao Cao as a token of friendship.
Downfall and death
In 198, Lü Bu switched his allegiance to Yuan Shu again and attacked Liu Bei at Xiaopei. Liu went to join Cao Cao and Cao led his army to attack Xu Province. After three months of siege and many consecutive defeats, Lü Bu's subjects were low in morale and some of them defected to Cao Cao's side. Lü Bu had no choice but to surrender eventually. In some accounts, Lü Bu was betrayed by his subordinates, who tied him up while he was asleep, and presented him to Cao Cao. Lü Bu was bound and brought before Cao Cao, to whom he pledged his service. When Liu Bei reminded Cao about the fate of Ding Yuan and Dong Zhuo, Cao condemned Lü Bu to death by hanging.
In Romance of the Three Kingdoms
Romance of the Three Kingdoms, a historical novel by Luo Guanzhong, was a romanticization of the events that occurred before and during the Three Kingdoms era. It portrayed Lü Bu as an invincible warrior but an incapable leader who is further marred by character flaws. While adhering to factual history in the general course of events, Luo exaggerated or sentimentalised many stories about Lü Bu, drawing inspirations from folklore and traditional operas. The following are some of the stories of Lü Bu in the novel that differ from historical accounts:
Defection to Dong Zhuo
Lü Bu (left), played by Zhang Guangbei, standing beside Ding Yuan (played by Rui Lirong) in the TV series Romance of the Three KingdomsLü Bu first appeared in Chapter Three as the foster son of Ding Yuan. When Dong Zhuo proposed to depose Emperor Shao, Ding opposed Dong's decision and denounced him as a traitor. Dong wanted to kill Ding for that but he refrained when Lü Bu stood forward to defend his foster father. Li Su, a general serving under Dong who was an old friend of Lü Bu, volunteered to persuade Lü to defect over.
Li Su went to see Lü Bu, bringing with him the Red Hare, a thousand taels of gold, dozens of pearls and a jade belt. Li succeeded in persuading Lü to defect, as Lü was moved by Dong's gifts and he felt that following Ding Yuan would not brighten his future. That night, Lü murdered and decapitated Ding Yuan, bringing the head to see Dong Zhuo the next morning. Dong was overjoyed and accepted Lü Bu as his foster son, appointing him as a high-ranking military officer and showering him with gifts. Lü Bu served as Dong's personal bodyguard from then on.
Battle with the three heroes at Hulao Pass
Dong Zhuo's tyranny and cruelty incurred the anger of many people, so in 190, several regional governors and warlords formed a coalition army under Yuan Shao's leadership to attack Dong.
The fight between the three sworn brothers – Liu Bei, Guan Yu and Zhang Fei against Lü Bu at Hulao Pass as depicted in the TV series Romance of the Three KingdomsThe coalition forces were victorious in the early battles until they reached Hulao Pass, 50 Li away from the capital city Luoyang. Lü Bu came forth to challenge the coalition army, riding on his Red Hare, clad in the finest silver armour and donning a pheasant-tail headdress. Generals from the coalition, Fang Yue and Mu Shun, were slain by Lü Bu in one-on-one duels, while Wu Anguo's wrist was cut off and had to retreat. The warlord Gongsun Zan fought with Lü personally but was no match for him and had to retreat as well. Just then, Zhang Fei appeared, insulting Lü Bu as "a bastard slave with three surnames (since he had his own name and had two adoptive fathers)". Zhang struggled against Lü Bu for more than fifty rounds but neither side was able to gain an advantage. Before long, Guan Yu and Liu Bei joined in the fight consecutively, but Lü Bu still managed to hold on. Eventually, as he grew weary, Lü Bu fought his way out and retreated back to the pass.
Killing Dong Zhuo
After Lü Bu's retreat, Dong Zhuo abandoned Luoyang and moved the capital city to Chang'an in the west. Interior Minister Wang Yun devised a plot to sow discord between Lü Bu and Dong Zhuo, intending to make use of Lü to kill the tyrant. Wang invited Lü Bu to his residence for a banquet one evening and captured Lü's attention with his servant girl Diao Chan. Lü Bu was entranced by Diao Chan's beauty and was overjoyed when Wang promised to let her marry him. A few days later, Wang repeated the scenario, this time with Dong Zhuo as the guest in his house. Wang allowed Dong to bring Diao Chan home and she became Dong's concubine.
The angry Lü Bu confronted Wang Yun later and accused Wang of breaking his promise. Wang feigned ignorance and lied to Lü Bu that Dong had brought Diao Chan home so he could see his prospective daughter-in-law before her marriage. Lü's anger subsided after hearing that and he apologized to Wang before leaving. The next morning, Lü Bu headed to Dong's bedroom and saw Diao Chan looking at him, with a sorrowful expression on her face. When Dong fell ill, Lü used the opportunity to see Diao Chan under the pretext of visiting his foster father. When Dong caught Lü Bu staring at his concubine, he was furious and forbid Lü from entering his inner rooms from then on.
Lü Bu embracing Diao Chan (played by Chen Hong) in the Fengyi Pavilion as depicted in the TV series Romance of the Three KingdomsOne day, when Dong Zhuo was out, Lü Bu sneaked into his house to see Diao Chan. At Fengyi Pavilion, Diao Chan lied to Lü Bu that she was no longer a virgin and felt ashamed to see Lü. She attempted suicide but Lü Bu stopped her. Lü was moved and believed that Dong had taken Diao Chan, rightfully his, from him by force. Just then, Dong returned and saw the pair locked in a tight embrace. He was furious and chased after Lü Bu, who fled, with a halberd in hand. Dong hurled the weapon at Lü, who dodged it narrowly and escaped. Dong returned to Diao Chan and chided her for infidelity, but Diao Chan replied indignantly that it was Lü Bu who embraced her against her consent. She attempted suicide once more to prove her loyalty to Dong, who was moved and he trusted her.
After that incident, Lü Bu became increasingly displeased with Dong Zhuo, although Dong attempted to "patch-up" by sending him gifts. Wang Yun seized the opportunity to instigate Lü Bu into killing Dong Zhuo, by warning Lü that he would be remembered in history as a Han traitor and corrupt general for serving a villain like Dong Zhuo. When Lü claimed that he could not bear to betray two adoptive fathers, Wang replied, "Dong Zhuo's surname is Dong, while yours is Lü. Did he consider you as his son when he threw that halberd at you?". Lü Bu eventually made up his decision to kill Dong. Wang sent Li Su to fetch Dong to the palace, claiming that the emperor had decided to abdicate and pass the throne to Dong. Dong was ambushed by Wang Yun's men at the palace gate and he cried out for Lü Bu to save him. Lü appeared and said coldly, "I've an imperial order to kill the traitor Dong Zhuo.", before delivering a fatal blow.
Lü Bu's downfall
Lü Bu (played by Zhang Guangbei) bound and brought before Cao Cao as depicted in the TV series Romance of the Three Kingdoms. On his right is Cao Ren (played by Xu Deshan)In 198, Cao Cao and Liu Bei formed a temporary alliance against Lü Bu and attacked him in the Battle of Xiapi. Lü Bu's forces were besieged inside the city for two months. Cao Cao's advisors Xun Yu and Guo Jia then suggested to their lord to flood Xiapi by directing water from the Yi and Si rivers. Lü's advisor Chen Gong suggested that he should lead a group of soldiers outside the city gate before the water level is too high, while Chen himself will lead another group to a different direction. Both groups will then coordinate a two-pronged attack on Cao Cao's army and should be sufficient to force him to retreat. However, Lü's wife, Lady Yan, complained that he hardly spent time with his family and persuaded him to stay in the city and defend it until Cao's forces retreat. As the city gates were flooded, Lü Bu's men rushed to inform him but Lü dismissed the warning, thinking that his Red Hare would help him escape. Lü Bu was heavily indulging in alcohol and women at that time, but one day he decided to abstain from wine after seeing his own reflection in the mirror. He issued an order banning his men from consuming alcohol. One day, Hou Cheng, one of Lü Bu's generals, caught a defector attempting to steal fifty horses. He prepared some wine to celebrate his achievement with his colleagues and presented five bottles to Lü Bu. Lü was enraged when he saw that Hou defied his order and had Hou flogged. The unhappy Hou Cheng then plotted with Song Xian and Wei Xu to defect over to Cao Cao. At night, Hou stole Lü Bu's Red Hare and fled from the city towards Cao's camp.
The next morning, Cao Cao's troops launched a fierce attack on the city, forcing Lü Bu to participate in the defense personally. The battle dragged until late noon and the exhausted Lü Bu took a nap. Song Xian and Wei Xu took the opportunity to tie Lü Bu up and they hoisted a white flag and threw Lü Bu's weapon down the city wall. With help from the defectors, Cao Cao's army broke into the city and captured it swiftly. Lü Bu was bound and brought before Cao Cao at White Gate Tower. He pledged his service to Cao and Cao, who had a penchant for recruiting talents, was almost swayed by Lü Bu's words. Just then, Liu Bei reminded Cao Cao of the fates of Ding Yuan and Dong Zhuo and Cao Cao changed his decision. Lü Bu stamped his foot in anger and hurled abuse at Liu Bei. Cao Cao then ordered for Lü Bu to be executed by hanging and Xiaoshou (梟首; the corpse to be decapitated and the head put on display).