PHOTONS

Let us look at the photon from Doppler Space Time principles. A spherical mass moving in the x direction with a velocity V will have a gravitational mass which will shrink in the X direction and a Doppler inertial mass which expands in the direction of travel and contracts opposite to the direction of travel.. When we are looking toward the object we find that the inertial mass comes to us before the gravitational mass does. When we look at the object moving away from us we find that the inertial mass appears within the gravitational mass and in front of the rear of the gravitational mass. As we move upward toward the speed of light we find that the inertial mass moves far ahead of the gravitational mass. We find that the gravitational mass shrinks into a flat plane.

From this we see that an electron in a cyclotron has become a line of photon energy with a concentrated charge Q in a flat plane. In effect the electron has become a charged photon as we reach light speed. The same is true of a proton. It is a proton which is flattened with a line of photon energy circling the cyclotron.

Let us now look at a simple photon. When it is traveling through space, it has no gravitational mass but inertial mass. Its energy is:

E = Mi CC ..Eq. 1

In equation 1 we see that the photon has an inertial energy of the inertial mass Mi times the speed of light squared. The photon to an independent observer at a higher light speed universe looks like a line with a flat plane attached perpendicular to the line traveling at light speed. To us, the photon only appears as a reaction. Thus we cannot see the fast forward line in front of the perpendicular photon because we only react at our light speed. To the rear we would see nothing at all. Thus once the photon passed it appears as nothing. The high light speed observer would observe the line in front of the photon and nothing at the end of the photon.

Once the photon hits a receiving instrument such as an electron, the line of energy compresses. This causes the photon to start to slow. The perpendicular disk of photon energy turns into a pulse. Thus the photon of zero width turns into a pulse of wavelength lambda. The observer at a higher light speed zone of reference thus sees the conversion from an inertial mass into the start of a gravitational mass. When the photon becomes part of the electron, it turns into spherical energy and thus it becomes gravitational energy or mass.

Gravitation mass means a spherical shape for the photons energy. The electron has mass because the equivalent photons within it produce spherical forms. The proton has much more photons within it and thus has more mass. When an object moves in a straight line it gains inertial mass but not necessarily any more gravitational mass. Objects in steady state rotation around a star will have part inertial mass and part gravitational mass for the additional photons absorbed. A simple formula for the gravitational mass of a photon is:

Mg = Mi [ 1- (V/C)^2] ^ 0.5. Eq. 2

Equation 2 specified that when a photon is moving at the speed of light, it has an inertial mass but no gravitational mass. When the photon slows to zero linear velocity, it has a gravitational mass equal to its inertial mass. The photon never slows to zero but when it moves in spherical patterns it produces a spherical gravitational field and thus is has gravitational mass.

The gravitational field is a spherical field of plus and minus dots. It is a balanced field and thus can be considered a net zero charged photon field. Even thought this field has no net charge, it rotates around an object when the object moves. Thus a neutral magnetic photon field is produced when you move a block of wood with velocity V in a straight line. The plus and minus dots rotate thus storing kinetic energy in terms of rotating photon fields.

The gravitational field from an object extends outward toward the radius of the universe. If the object is stationary in pure space and meets another object in stationary in pure space, the purely static photon fields would not attract or repel each other. Two objects in pure free space would neither attract nor repel each other. However since the universe is expanding and since the dot charges decrease with time for an expanding universe, the static photon fields become dynamic. Therefore the expanding and changing field of the first mass will cut the insides of the second mass and set up photon eddy currents. In the same manner the second mass will produce eddy currents in the first mass. Thus the two masses will attract each other for an expanding universe in which charges decrease with time. Mass./energy also decrease with time. For the compression cycle of the universe, the dots charge up and mass/energy increases with time. In this case the two object will repel each other. Thus negative gravity results from a contracting universe.

The Universe is driven by the powerful electromagnetic fields and not the photon fields. Thus gravity is the weak force of expanding photon fields and not the strong force of the electrostatic and electromagnetic fields. In Doppler Space Time the initial work on the photon was accomplished. Now after 5 years, a review of the work indicates a better understanding of the photon today. It will continue to be studied. Basically the ideas of 5 years ago are still valid but some fine points need to be worked out.

Equation 2 is important to help us understand why photons bend around a star. The photon in free space is a line with a perpendicular flat plane. As such it has zero gravitational mass. Once we put the photon in glass we find it slows and becomes gravitational. Inside an object it has a gravitational mass equal to its rest or inertial mass, When the photon travels through pure empty space, it will fly straight. When we approach a star, we no longer have pure vacuum. The speed of light drops slightly and the shape goes from a pure flat perpendicular plane to a small finite thickness. It starts to turn into a pulse. Thus it becomes slightly gravitational. When we approach a very strong star, the surrounding volume near the star changes the electrical and magnetic constants. Thus the speed of light near a large star is less than in a vacuum. Therefore the speed drops and the photon develops gravitational mass. Einstein conceived of curved space time but this is false. The equations will be similar but the reality is a simple electrical problem for the electrical universe. Thus equation 2 shows us why light curves around a large star. Of course it even curves around our sun as well.

Einstein used wrong theory to produce good results. He made simple problems into complex mathematical solutions whereas the Engineering analysis is sufficient. Yet people get so used to his theory that they believe it. Science then becomes like religion with people arguing all sides of an issue whereas the true simple answer is overlooked. Oh well. I did not make this world, I only live here for awhile.

Copyright 2006 by Gerald Grushow BSEE (Summa Cum Laude) permission granted to copy and discuss. For free copy of Doppler Space Time go to

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