Post Reply Pre-Lesson Introduction: Ohayou!
sensei
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Posted 12/29/09 , edited 12/29/09
To start things off, I guess it's good to introduce some useful expressions, as they will be encountered through much of your studies. If you haven't memorized the kana yet, it'd be good for you to do so.


Daily Greetings

おはよう > ohayou > good morning
おはようございます > ohayou gozaimasu > good morning (polite variant)
こんにちは > konnichiwa > good afternoon
こんばんは > konbanwa > good evening
おやすみなさい > oyasuminasai > good night


Notes:
おはよう is a more casual greeting commonly used for friends and relatives. If you're addressing a superior, such as your language professor, it's more polite to use おはようございます. This more respectful form is also used for strangers or new acquaintances.

こんにちは in general can be used any time during the day, but it's more common to hear おはよう in the morning.

おやすみなさい is often shortened to just おやすみ between close acquaintances.


Hello's and Goodbye's

はじめまして > hajimemashite > how do you do?
どうぞよろしく > douzo yoroshiku > nice to meet you
さよなら > sayonara > good bye
じゃあ、また > jaa mata > good bye


Notes:
はじめまして literally means "for the first time", so this expression is ONLY used when you meet someone for the first time. A Japanese person will find it particularly odd if you were to address them with はじめまして if you had already been introduced to one another in the past.

どうぞよろしく is a common reply to はじめまして, and should not be used by itself. If you wish to greet someone with the intent of asking them how they are, you can use the expression おげんきですか.

さよなら is used when you think you may not see the person for a while, or the next time you may meet is not certain. In cases where you are saying farewell to people you see everyday, like your classmates, じゃあ、また is more appropriate. Note, however, that some people still use さよなら despite this.

All of the aforementioned greetings may be used as "hello's" given the time of day. Feel free to use whichever one you feel is appropriate.


Gratitude and Apology

ありがとう > arigatou > thank you
ありがとうございます > arigatou gozaimasu > thank you (polite variant)
ごめんなさい > gomen nasai > I'm sorry
すみません > sumimasen > I'm sorry; excuse me
いいえ > iie > It's alright; don't worry about it
どういたしまして > douitashimashite > It's nothing; don't mention it


Notes:
ありがとう and ありがとうございます operate in the same way as おはよう and おはようございます do. Use the former for close acquaintances and family members, and the latter for superiors and strangers.

ごめんなさい has a deeper apologetic tone than すみません. It's more common to hear this apology between acquaintances.

すみません has several meanings, depending on the context. 1) It can mean "excuse me", as in when you would like to call someone's attention; 2) "I'm sorry" for something you may have done unintentionally to someone, and; 3) "thank you" if someone has done something for you, and you want to sound modest because they went out of their way to do it.

いいえ literally means "no", but is used as a reply to apologies like すみません.

どういたしまして is a reply to ありがとう and other expressions showing gratitude.


Coming and Going

いってきます > ittekimasu > I'm going (out)
いってらっしゃい > itterasshai > take care
ただいま > tadaima > I'm back
おかえりなさい > okaerinasai > welcome back


Notes:
These expressions are commonly used in the house/family context. If you're leaving a room with other people in it, such as an office or classroom, it's more appropriate to use the expression しつれいします when leaving, and おじゃまします when re-entering.


Before and After eating

いただきます > itadakimasu > thank you for the meal (before eating)
ごちそうさま > gochisousama > thank you for the meal (after eating)


Notes:
ごちそうさま is also commonly said in the past tense in more formal contexts, and is said as ごちそうさまでした.
senpai
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Posted 12/29/09
hehehe thnx... now, i have new japanese words.... ありがとう .....

btw, どういたしまして > douitashimashite > It's nothing; don't mention it
can also be you are welcome right?? hehehe....
sensei
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Posted 12/30/09

zudo_mon wrote:

hehehe thnx... now, i have new japanese words.... ありがとう .....

btw, どういたしまして > douitashimashite > It's nothing; don't mention it
can also be you are welcome right?? hehehe....


Yes, it can also mean that.
senpai
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Posted 12/30/09

edsamac wrote:


zudo_mon wrote:

hehehe thnx... now, i have new japanese words.... ありがとう .....

btw, どういたしまして > douitashimashite > It's nothing; don't mention it
can also be you are welcome right?? hehehe....


Yes, it can also mean that. :)


owhhh.. i see,, thnx!! is that right katakana is only use to make a name, country, animals and more...??
sensei
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Posted 12/30/09

zudo_mon wrote:

owhhh.. i see,, thnx!! is that right katakana is only use to make a name, country, animals and more...??


Katakana is used for foreign loan words - basically anything that isn't a Japanese or Chinese word. Katakana can also be used like italics in English. Another use of Katakana is for onomatopoeia, commonly referred to as "sound effect" words.
senpai
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Posted 12/30/09 , edited 12/30/09

edsamac wrote:


zudo_mon wrote:

owhhh.. i see,, thnx!! is that right katakana is only use to make a name, country, animals and more...??


Katakana is used for foreign loan words - basically anything that isn't a Japanese or Chinese word. Katakana can also be used like italics in English. Another use of Katakana is for onomatopoeia, commonly referred to as "sound effect" words.


owh.... you mean like these ???

アメリカ >amerika>america
サッカ > sakka > soccer
チョコレ-ト > chokore-to > chocolate
ビデオ > bideo > video

like those 4??
and i also read that katakana is use to make name, country, place other than foreign loan words and sound effect...

how about hiragana?? how can we use it??
sensei
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Posted 12/30/09

zudo_mon wrote:

and i also read that katakana is use to make name, country, place other than foreign loan words and sound effect...


Names, countries, and places from other countries ARE foreign loan words.


how about hiragana?? how can we use it??


Hiragana is used for native Japanese words or inflections and particles.

Most of the active components of speech (like nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives) use Kanji, instead. In cases where we use Kanji, a hiragana after a Kanji is known as an inflection, and helps indicate what reading is used (be it the Onyomi or the Kunyomi of the said Kanji).


学, for example, is read as GAKU (onyomi), but when you see it as 学ぶ, you read it as manabu. Both practically mean the same thing, but their reading is different due to the inflection.

senpai
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Posted 12/30/09

edsamac wrote:


zudo_mon wrote:

and i also read that katakana is use to make name, country, place other than foreign loan words and sound effect...


Names, countries, and places from other countries ARE foreign loan words.


how about hiragana?? how can we use it??


Hiragana is used for native Japanese words or inflections and particles.

Most of the active components of speech (like nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives) use Kanji, instead. In cases where we use Kanji, a hiragana after a Kanji is known as an inflection, and helps indicate what reading is used (be it the Onyomi or the Kunyomi of the said Kanji).


学, for example, is read as GAKU (onyomi), but when you see it as 学ぶ, you read it as manabu. Both practically mean the same thing, but their reading is different due to the inflection.



owhhh... i see.... i have example to you to show it true or not in using kanji and hiragana like this

食べる > taberu > eat
食べます > tabemasu > (also) eat
but, if we add another hiragana the meaning can be change right?? like :
食べました > tabemashita > ate

is it correct??

and, can we use hiragana only without kanji like this example :

食べる > taberu and たべる > taberu
食べます > tabemasu and たべます > tabemasu
食べました > tabemashita and てべました > tabemashita

is it can??
sensei
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Posted 12/31/09

zudo_mon wrote:

owhhh... i see.... i have example to you to show it true or not in using kanji and hiragana like this

食べる > taberu > eat
食べます > tabemasu > (also) eat
but, if we add another hiragana the meaning can be change right?? like :
食べました > tabemashita > ate

is it correct??


What you're doing here is called conjugating. 食べる is the root verb, and simply means "to eat". When you conjugate, you "convert" the verb for different uses. 食べます is an active form of the verb (an action verb), so this type of verb uses the を particle. You can say ラーメンを食べます for example, which means "I eat ramen".

食べました is, again, another type of conjugation, but is the past tense form of the verb. If you say ラーメンを食べました, you're simply saying "I ate ramen".



and, can we use hiragana only without kanji like this example :

食べる > taberu and たべる > taberu
食べます > tabemasu and たべます > tabemasu
食べました > tabemashita and てべました > tabemashita

is it can??


Even without kanji, the Japanese may be able to figure out what verb you're using based on context, alone. Your example, though, is quite straightforward. It becomes difficult, however, when you encounter homophones, or words that have the same pronunciation, but different meanings. A good example is はなす. This word can mean three different things, and if it weren't for the context of where it was said, it would be difficult to tell what it is you're talking about if you don't use Kanji. The kanji helps differentiate this word into it's three different meanings, namely 話す (to talk), 離す (to separate), and 放す (to release). All three are written in the same way using hiragana, but it's thanks to kanji you can tell them apart.
senpai
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Posted 12/31/09 , edited 12/31/09

edsamac wrote:


zudo_mon wrote:

owhhh... i see.... i have example to you to show it true or not in using kanji and hiragana like this

食べる > taberu > eat
食べます > tabemasu > (also) eat
but, if we add another hiragana the meaning can be change right?? like :
食べました > tabemashita > ate

is it correct??


What you're doing here is called conjugating. 食べる is the root verb, and simply means "to eat". When you conjugate, you "convert" the verb for different uses. 食べます is an active form of the verb (an action verb), so this type of verb uses the を particle. You can say ラーメンを食べます for example, which means "I eat ramen".

食べました is, again, another type of conjugation, but is the past tense form of the verb. If you say ラーメンを食べました, you're simply saying "I ate ramen".



and, can we use hiragana only without kanji like this example :

食べる > taberu and たべる > taberu
食べます > tabemasu and たべます > tabemasu
食べました > tabemashita and てべました > tabemashita

is it can??


Even without kanji, the Japanese may be able to figure out what verb you're using based on context, alone. Your example, though, is quite straightforward. It becomes difficult, however, when you encounter homophones, or words that have the same pronunciation, but different meanings. A good example is はなす. This word can mean three different things, and if it weren't for the context of where it was said, it would be difficult to tell what it is you're talking about if you don't use Kanji. The kanji helps differentiate this word into it's three different meanings, namely 話す (to talk), 離す (to separate), and 放す (to release). All three are written in the same way using hiragana, but it's thanks to kanji you can tell them apart.


owh... really?? hmm... i really hard remember those kanji... and difficult to write it than katakana and hiragana... can you give me kanji that always used??? i mean the basic kanji we daily use...
sensei
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Posted 12/31/09

zudo_mon wrote:

owh... really?? hmm... i really hard remember those kanji... and difficult to write it than katakana and hiragana... can you give me kanji that always used??? i mean the basic kanji we daily use...


You have to learn them one at a time, hence why I'm introducing them slowly in your lessons.

If you want to know how many basic Kanji there are, there are actually 800+ basic "educational characters". There are an additional 800 or so "common use characters" which are found in every day publications, and another 200 characters for "names". All in all, the "basic" kanji consists of nearly 2000 different characters.
senpai
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Posted 12/31/09

edsamac wrote:


zudo_mon wrote:

owh... really?? hmm... i really hard remember those kanji... and difficult to write it than katakana and hiragana... can you give me kanji that always used??? i mean the basic kanji we daily use...


You have to learn them one at a time, hence why I'm introducing them slowly in your lessons.

If you want to know how many basic Kanji there are, there are actually 800+ basic "educational characters". There are an additional 800 or so "common use characters" which are found in every day publications, and another 200 characters for "names". All in all, the "basic" kanji consists of nearly 2000 different characters.


OMG!! i only can remember katakana and hiragana cause i always read and see them in my daily!! but kanji is hard!! i only know is number in kanji and watashi in kanji..hmm... but i wish i can remember them all one by one... hehehe.. arigatou nee sensei!!
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