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Post Reply Lesson 2 ~ That's mine!
sensei
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Posted 1/1/10 , edited 1/1/10
第二果:単語
Lesson 2: Vocabulary


Pointing words

これ  >   > kore > this one
それ  >   > sore > that one
あれ  >   > are > that one (over there)
どれ  >   > dore > which one
だれ  > 誰 > dare > who

Nouns

えんぴつ  >     > enpitsu > pencil
かさ    >     > kasa > umbrella
かばん   >     > kaban > bag
くつ    >     > kutsu > shoes
ジーンズ  >     > jiinzu > jeans
じしょ   > 辞書  > jisho > dictionary
じてんしゃ > 自転車 > jitensha > bicycle
しんぶん  > 新聞  > shinbun > newspaper
テープ   >     > teepu > tape
とけい   >     > tokei > watch; clock
ノート   >     > nooto > notebook
ペン    >     > pen > ball-point pen
ほん    > 本   > hon > book

ご     > 語   > go > language

Family Members

おとうさん > お父さん > otou-san > Father
おかあさん > お母さん > okaa-san > Mother
おにいさん > お兄さん > onii-san > Brother (older)
おねえさん > お姉さん > onee-san > Sister (older)

Adverbs and other expressions

ね      >    > ne > sentence ender (see grammar notes)
よ      >    > yo > declaratory sentence ender (see grammar notes)
ぜんぶ    > 全部 > zenbu > all; everything
なに     > 何  > nani > what...
それじゃ   >    > sore ja > very well, then...
わかりました >    > wakarimashita > understood.
ええと    >    > eeto > Umm...; Let's see...
sensei
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これ それ あれ どれ

In English, when we point to things we don't know the names of, we say "this", "that", and "that over there". Similarly, the Japanese use これ, それ, and あれ, respectively:

Example
これはなんですか。
kore wa nan desu ka
what is this?
(NB: "nani" (なに) becomes "nan" (なん) before the copula です.)

それはじしょです。
sore wa jisho desu
That is a dictionary.


これ refers to an object that is close to you, the speaker. それ refers to an object that is close to the person you are speaking to. Lastly, あれ refers to something that is far away from both you and the person you are speaking to.

Example
A: これはわたしのペンです。
kore wa watashi no pen desu
This is my pen.

B: いいえ、それはわたしのぺんです。
iie, sore wa watashi no pen desu.
No, that is my pen.

C: あっ!あれはわたしのぺんです。
Aa! are wa watashi no pen desu
Ah! That is my pen over there.


The last pointing word, どれ, means "which", and is a question word.

Example
どれですか。
dore desu ka
Which one is it? (that you are talking about)


Since どれ is a question word, it uses the particle instead of は. If you may have noticed up until now, words like これ、それ、and あれ all use は as their topic particle. For reasons that won't be expounded upon further in this lesson, どれ ALWAYS uses が as its topic particle.

Example
どれあなたのかばんですか。
dore ga anata no kaban desu ka
Which one is your bag?


じゃありません

We know, now, how to say that something is the case, namely by using the sentence structure Noun-1 は Noun-2 です. We also know how to identify different objects, now, using the pointing terms we just learned:

Example
これはほんです。
kore wa hon desu
This is a book.


Now we will learn how to say that something is not the case. When we want to say something is not what it is, we change the copula です with じゃありません.


Example
これはペンですか。
kore wa pen desu ka
Is this a pen?

いいえ、それはペンじゃありません。
iie, sore wa pen ja arimasen
No, that is not a pen.


じゃありません is known as a negative form. The copula we previously learned, です, is a positive form, and both are actually verbs that express being.

Example
POSITIVE: ___は___です。 (___ IS ___)
NEGATIVE: ___は___じゃありません。 (___ IS NOT ___)


We will learn more about the positive and negative forms of verbs in later lessons.

Noun の

We learned in the last lesson that in a Noun-1 の Noun-2 phrase, Noun-1 describes further the qualities of Noun-2. In this sense, Noun-2 is the main object of which is being described. When it is already clear what is being talked about, Noun-2 can be omitted altogether, as is seen in the following example.

Example
これはケートさんのかばんですか。
kore wa keeto-san no kaban desu ka?
Is this Kate's bag?

それはケートさんのじゃありません。それはきょうこさんのです。
sore wa keeto-san no ja arimasen. sore wa kyouko-san no desu.
That is not Kate's. That is Kyouko's.


The response in the last example shows how the main object being described, namely the bag, can be removed but still be understood in context. The English translation also shows that the word "bag" is no longer included in the sentence. For this reason, a "Noun の" phrase can be considered a possessive statement in English, equivalent to the apostrophe "s" of the English possessive noun. This doesn't limit it to possessive statements, however. We will look to further uses of this kind of phrase in later lessons.

だれ

だれ, just like どれ, is a question word, and refers to "who". It calls for the particle が as well, and when used with の to form the possessive, becomes "whose".

Example
だれアメリカじんですか。
dare ga amerika jin desu ka
Who (here) is an American?

これはだれのかばんですか。
kore wa dare no kaban desu ka
Whose bag is this?


〜語

(read as "go") is a suffix for languages. You can stick a country's name and it will become the language, quite similar to how you form a nationality using the suffix 人. The English language, however, is slightly different, and uses the prefix えい.

Example
それはえいごのじしょです。
sore wa eigo no jisho desu.
That is an English dictionary.


Sentence Enders

Most Japanese sentences end with "sentence enders" - expressions that add color or direction to speech. In this lesson, we will learn two: ね and よ.

is found at the end of sentences looking for confirmation or agreement. When you end a sentence with ね, you are showing your reservation as to the accuracy of your statement. It is somewhat close to the English phrase "isn't it?" or a casual "huh?" which seeks confirmation.

Example
これはにほんのかばんですね。
kore wa nihon no kaban desu ne
This is a Japanese bag, isn't it?


There are several other uses for the sentence ender ね, but this is a good enough start.

is a declarative sentence ender, meaning it emphasizes truth and fact. When you want to make it clear that what you're saying should be taken seriously, or if you want to clear up the misconceptions of the person you are talking to, you use よ.

Example
これはにほんのかばんですね。
kore wa nihon no kaban desu ne
This is a Japanese bag, isn't it?

いいえ、それはにほんのじゃありません。かんこくのですよ。
iie, sore wa nihon no ja arimasen. kankoku no desu yo.
No, that is not Japanese. That's Korean, I tell you.


Lastly, よ can be used to bring up something that you think is important for someone else to know. It may be a warning, a reminder, or even just a friendly piece of advice.

Example
いまはさんじですよ。
ima wa san ji desu yo
(If you didn't realize it) it's three o'clock.
sensei
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Posted 1/1/10 , edited 1/2/10
会話(例)
Sample Dialogue


The class president and Kyouko are going through some items left behind after the school festival.


委員長:これはぜんぶですか。
iinchou: kore wa zenbu desu ka

きょうこ:はい。
kyouko: hai

委員長:それじゃ、だれのかばんですか。
iinchou: sore ja, dare no kaban desu ka

きょうこ:ケートさんのかばんですよ。
kyouko: keeto-san no kaban desu yo

委員長:はい、わかりました。
iinchou: hai, wakarimashita

きょうこ:あれはいいんちょうのノートですね。
kyouko: are wa iinchou no nooto desu ne

委員長:えっ。そうですよね。ええと、これはあきらさんのペンですね。
iinchou: eh. sou desu yo ne. Eeto, kore wa akira-san no pen desu ne

きょうこ:それはペンじゃありません。えんぴつですよ、わたしのです。
kyouko: sore wa pen ja arimasen. enpitsu desu yo. watashi no desu

委員長:えっ、すみません。
iinchou: eh, sumimasen
sensei
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Posted 1/1/10 , edited 1/1/10
表現ノート
Expression notes


わかりました
This expression literally means "I understood", but can be used when you acknowledge someone's statement. The class president uses this to acknowledge Kyouko's statement that the bag belongs to Kate.

そうですよね
This is an example of two sentence enders being combined. It isn't all that odd to find multiple sentence enders at the end of a Japanese sentence, but this sentence specifically acknowledges someone's previous statement as a matter of fact. そうですよね, therefore, makes it clear to the person you're speaking to that they were, in fact, correct.

えっ
えっ is an exclamation of surprise, quite like the incredulous English equivalent of, "what?!"

ええと
ええと is another expression of reservation, and is quite like an English pause or "hmm..." Some people stick ね at the end, which makes it something along the lines of "well, let's see now..." in English.
senpai
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Posted 1/2/10
hmmm.... i only understand a bit in this second lesson.... hmmm.... confuse now...
sensei
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Posted 1/2/10

zudo_mon wrote:

hmmm.... i only understand a bit in this second lesson.... hmmm.... confuse now...


What exactly do you find confusing?
senpai
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Posted 1/2/10

edsamac wrote:


zudo_mon wrote:

hmmm.... i only understand a bit in this second lesson.... hmmm.... confuse now...


What exactly do you find confusing?


i confuse about how to make a question... i only understand that if we want to make a quetion, just put the ka word at the last word... hmm... can you explain it all easily or simply??? i jjust want how to make a question and reply it... i confuse...i can't read all the question and understand it but i can't make question... i just can make a basic and simple only... help me!! post our answer in my PM..
sensei
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zudo_mon wrote:

i confuse about how to make a question... i only understand that if we want to make a quetion, just put the ka word at the last word... hmm... can you explain it all easily or simply??? i jjust want how to make a question and reply it... i confuse...i can't read all the question and understand it but i can't make question... i just can make a basic and simple only... help me!! post our answer in my PM..


I think I understand what's confusing you. In the last lesson, I said you can add か at the end to make a question, but in this lesson, there are questions that don't end with か.

You are right - if you put か at the end, you will get a question. Think of the か as a question mark, like in this sentence:

これはにほんのかばんですか。
kore wa nihon no kaban desu ka
Is this a Japanese bag?

But in the examples, you probably noticed a sentence like this:

これはにほんのかばんですね。
kore wa nihon no kaban desu ne
This is a Japanese bag, isn't it?


In both cases, these are correct questions - the difference lies in the reason why they were asked. In the first question (the one ending with か), the person is asking if it is a Japanese bag. He or she is probably looking for one, and has come across on that looks like it, but is not sure - hence the question. The second question (ending with ね) is asking for confirmation. He or she has come to the conclusion that it is a Japanese bag they're looking at, and is asking whether or not his or her assumption is correct.


If it will help, here is a translation of one of the class president's lines from the dialogue:

これはあきらさんのペンですね。
kore wa akira-san no pen desu ne
This is Akira's pen, right?



I don't want to complicate things, but this is an example of semantics. Just remember the purpose of each sentence ender - not whether or not it makes a question:



- when placed at the end of a sentence, turns it into a question

- when placed at the end of a sentence, seeks for confirmation or agreement from the person you are speaking to.

- when placed at the end of a sentence, emphasizes truth and fact, or brings to light something you want the person you are speaking with to be aware of.
sensei
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Posted 1/2/10
I thought of something simpler...

is like the ? at the end of a sentence.


is like adding right? at the end of a sentence.


is like adding i tell you at the end of a sentence.
senpai
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Posted 1/3/10

edsamac wrote:

I thought of something simpler...

is like the ? at the end of a sentence.


is like adding right? at the end of a sentence.


is like adding i tell you at the end of a sentence.


thnx for you simple and easy to understand info... now, i understand it... what is the function of using the words "no" and
"wa"?? i always confuse how to use it.. hmm..
sensei
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Posted 1/3/10

zudo_mon wrote:

thnx for you simple and easy to understand info... now, i understand it... what is the function of using the words "no" and
"wa"?? i always confuse how to use it.. hmm..


is a topic marker. Whatever comes before it is the topic of the sentence.

If you know your basic English grammar, you'd know that the topic of the sentence "I am a student" is the word I. Similarly, in Japanese, "I" (watashi) is the topic of the sentence in "watashi wa gakusei desu".


"no" has several uses, but if you read the last lesson, it's used to 1) combine nouns, and; 2) create the possessive form. In otherwords

1) combining nouns
English:
Noun-1: Japanese
Noun-2: Student
Noun-1 + Noun-2 = Japanese Student

Japanese:
Noun-1: nihonjin
Noun-2: gakusei
Noun-1 + Noun-2 = Nihonjin no gakusei

*In other words, "no" plays the role of the "plus sign".



2) possessive form
English
Noun: Kate
Possessive: Kate's

Japanese
Noun: keeto
possessive: keetono

*The "no" acts like an apostrophe "s" in English. What it is you're referring to that is owned by the person is based on the context of the sentence:

A: kore wa keeto-san no kaban desu ka?
B: iie, sore wa akira-san no desu yo.

In this example, it's already understood that what is being talked about is a bag, so it is no longer mentioned in the second sentence. What we're left with is "Akira's" (possessive form).
senpai
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Posted 1/3/10 , edited 1/3/10
owhh.... thnx... that's great info!! hehehe

so,

no is use as "plus (+)" right?? and also used as aphostrophe (possesive form)
using "no" :

1) daigaku + gakusei
daigaku no gakusei
university student

2) teacher's book
senseino hon

and using "wa" is use after topic maker word right??

watashi wa gakusei desu
i am student

is it??

sensei
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Posted 1/3/10

zudo_mon wrote:

owhh.... thnx... that's great info!! hehehe

so,

no is use as "plus (+)" right?? and also used as aphostrophe (possesive form)
using "no" :

1) daigaku + gakusei
daigaku no gakusei
university student

2) teacher's book
senseino hon

and using "wa" is use after topic maker word right??

watashi wa gakusei desu
i am student

is it??



yes, you got it.
senpai
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Posted 1/16/10

edsamac wrote:


zudo_mon wrote:

owhh.... thnx... that's great info!! hehehe

so,

no is use as "plus (+)" right?? and also used as aphostrophe (possesive form)
using "no" :

1) daigaku + gakusei
daigaku no gakusei
university student

2) teacher's book
senseino hon

and using "wa" is use after topic maker word right??

watashi wa gakusei desu
i am student

is it??



yes, you got it.


i still got confusing now... what the meaning of "o"??

nihongo o naraimasu??

and which of these is true one??

a) watashi o tabemasu
b) watashi no tabemasu
c) watashi wa tabemasu
sensei
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Posted 1/16/10 , edited 1/16/10

zudo_mon wrote:

i still got confusing now... what the meaning of "o"??

nihongo o naraimasu??

and which of these is true one??

a) watashi o tabemasu
b) watashi no tabemasu
c) watashi wa tabemasu


Don't jump ahead of yourself. "o" (を) is a particle for direct objects, and I have yet to introduce that in the lessons. "Nihongo o naraimasu" simply means "(I/you/they) learn Japanese".


As far as the sample sentences you gave are concerned, only "c" makes some sense, but it seems rather awkward. Literally, "watashi wa tabemasu" translates to "I eat". Sentence "a" translates to "eat me", and sentence "b" doesn't make any sense, whatsoever.
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