Post Reply Lesson 3 ~ How much?
sensei
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第三果:単語
Lesson 3: Vocabulary


Pointing words

この  >   > kono > this...
その  >   > sono > that...
あの  >   > ano > that (over there)...
どの  >   > dono > which...

Nouns

じてんしゃ  > 自転車  > jitensha > bicycle
くるま    > 車    > kuruma > car/automobile
ジーンズ   >      > jiinzu > jeans
ティーシャツ >      > tiishatsu > t-shirt
ぼうし    >      > boushi > cap/hat
スカート   >      > sukaato > skirt
ジャケット  >      > jaketto > jacket
メニュー   >      > menyuu > menu
にく     > 肉    > niku > meat
さかな    > 魚    > sakana > fish
えび     >      > ebi > shrimp/prawn
やさい    > 野菜   > yasai > vegetables
かつどん   >      > katsudon > pork cutlet
てんぷら   > 天ぷら  > tenpura > tempura
えん     > 円    > en > yen

Counting Words

じゅう > 十 > juu > ten
ひゃく > 百 > hyaku > hundred
せん  > 千 > sen > thousand
まん  > 万 > man > ten thousand

Adjectives

たかい  > 高い > takai > expensive
やすい  > 安い > yasui > cheap
おいしい >    > oishii > delicious/tasty

Adverbs and other expressions

じゃあ        >    > ja > if that is the case...
いくら        >    > ikura > how much?
(〜を)どうぞ     >    > (~o) douzo > ... here it is
(〜を)おねがいします >    > (~o) onegaishimasu > ... please
どうも        >    > doumo > thank you
いらっしゃいませ   >    > irasshaimase > welcome (store greeting)
かしこまりました   >    > kashikomarimashita > certainly/understood
sensei
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Posted 2/1/10 , edited 2/1/10
この その あの どの

In the last lesson, we learned how to point to things we don't know the names of. If we know what it is we're referring to, we can explicitly state something using この, その, and あの, as in the following examples:

Example
このかばんはケートさんのです。
kono kaban wa keeto-san no desu
This bag is Kate's.

Compare with:

これはケートさんのかばんです。
kore wa keeto-san no kaban desu.
This is Kate's bag.


Example
そのとけいはたかいです。
sono tokei wa takai desu
That watch is expensive

Compare with:

それはとけいです。
sore wa tokei desu.
That is a watch.


Example
あのがくせいはあきらさんです。
ano gakusei wa akira-san desu.
That student over there is Akira.

Compare with:

あれはあきらさんです。
are wa akira-san desu.
That (over there) is Akira.


The words この, その, and あの must ALWAYS come with a noun. Notice that in doing so, the noun becomes the specific subject of the sentence that is being referred to. In this sense, more descriptions can be added to the subject, as can be seen in the latter two examples just shown. Therefore, if you don't know what it is you're pointing to, use これ, それ, and あれ. When you know what it is you're pointing to, you can state it explicitly using この, その, and あの.

どの works in a similar manner, and means "which (specific item)". It always follows a noun, as seen in the following example:

どのかばんがケートさんのですか。
dono kaban ga keeto-san no desu ka?
Which bag is Kate's?

Compare with:

どれがケートさんのですか。
dore ga keeto-san no desu ka?
Which is Kate's?


As with the use of どれ, どの ALWAYS uses the particle が.


Counting large numbers

We already learned in past lessons how to count from one to ten. Now we will learn how to count higher numbers. Take note that counting in Japanese is like adding together numbers. If you know the number one to ten, you already know how to count up to 99. Simply follow this pattern:

Example
じゅう    > 十   > juu > ten
じゅういち  > 十一  > juu ichi > eleven
じゅうに   > 十ニ  > juu ni > twelve
じゅうさん  > 十三  > juu san > thirteen
にじゅう   > 二十  > ni juu > twenty
にじゅういち > 二十一 > ni juu ichi > twenty one
にじゅうに  > 二十ニ > ni juu ni > twenty two
さんじゅう  > 三十  > san juu > thirty
よんじゅう  > 四十  > yon juu > fourty
ごじゅう   > 五十  > go juu > fifty
so on and so forth...


In short, a tens digit like 十 works in such a way that any number found to the right of it is simply added to it. Any number found to the left of it, on the other hand, is multiplied to it. Take a look at the following summary:

Example
[number] multiply < 十 > [number] add

九十九 > 9 x 10 + 9 = 99
(kyuu juu kyuu)


We can expand this to include other tens digit markers, such as for hundreds (ひゃく/百), thousands (せん/千), and tens of thousands (まん/万). Take note, however, that certain number combinations have transformations in pronunciation. Take a look at the following examples:

Example
ひゃく   > 百  > hyaku > one hundred
にひゃく  > 二百 > nihyaku > two hundred
さんびゃく > 三百 > sanbyaku > three hundred
よんひゃく > 四百 > yonhyaku > four hundred
ろっぴゃく > 六百 > roppyaku > six hundred
はっぴゃく > 八百 > happyaku > eight hundred

せん   > 千  > sen > one thousand
にせん  > 二千 > nisen > two thousand
さんぜん > 三千 > sanzen > three thousand
よんせん > 四千 > yonsen > four thousand
はっせん > 八千 > hassen > eight thousand

いちまん   > 一万  > ichiman > ten thousand
にまん    > 二万  > niman > twenty thousand
じゅうまん  > 十万  > juuman > one hundred thousand
にじゅうまん > 二十万 > nijuuman > two hundred thousand
ひゃくまん  > 百万  > hyakuman > one million
にひゃくまん > ニ百万 > nihyakuman > two million


Take note that you don't need to add いち in front of ひゃく or せん when you want to say one hundred or one thousand, respectively. However, when you say ten thousand, you need to add いち to make いちまん (ten thousand). It may look a little confusing with the addition of a ten thousand marker, but a little practice and you'll be able to get it. To sum things up, you can think of large numbers as the sum of smaller numbers put together:

Example
1,234,567 > 100 + 20 + 3 = 123 x 10,000 (hyaku nijuusan man)
4 x 1,000 = 4,000 (yonsen)
5 x 100 = 500 (gohyaku)
6 x 10 = 60 (rokujuu)
7 (nana)

1,234,567 > hyaku nijuusan man yonsen gohyaku rokujuu nana
(百二十三七)



いくらですか。

You can ask how much something is by pointing to the item you're referring to and adding いくらですか at the end of the sentence.

Example
これはいくらですか。
kore wa ikura desu ka?
How much is this?

このかばんはいくらですか。
kono kaban wa ikura desu ka?
How much is this bag?


The price of an item is obtained by simply slapping 円 (pronounced as "en") at the end of the price value.

Example
そのとけいはいくらですか。
sono tokei wa ikura desu ka?
How much is that watch?

このとけいは三千五百円です。
kono tokei wa sanzen gohyaku en desu.
This watch is 3,500 yen.


You can expand further more questions by utilizing the different pointing words.

Example
A: どのじしょが千円ですか。
dono jisho ga sen en desu ka?
Which dictionary is 1,000 Yen?

B: このじしょですよ。
kono jisho desu yo.
It's this dictionary.

A: それはたかいですか。
sore wa takai desu ka?
Is that expensive?

B: いいえ、これはやすいですよ。
iie, kore wa yasui desu yo.
No, this is cheap.



Requesting items

So you know how to ask what something is or how much it is, but now how do you ask for it? If you've decided on it, you can point to the item and end the sentence with をおねがいします. In the following examples, notice how the particle は is replaced for this phrase:

Example
このほんをおねがいします
kono hon o onegaishimasu
I will get this book. (lit. This book, please.)


じゃあ、これをおねがいします
jaa, kore o onegaishimasu.
Very well, I'll take it. (lit. I will have this, please.)
sensei
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Posted 2/1/10 , edited 2/1/10
会話(例)
Sample Dialogue



Kate is having lunch at a local restaurant.


ウエートレス:いらっしゃいませ。メニューをどうぞ。
ueetoresu: irasshaimase. menyuu o douzo.

ケート:どうも。あの、この「てんぷら」はさかなですか。
keeto: doumo. ano, kono "tenpura" wa sakana desu ka?

ウエートレス:それはとりじゃありません。えびですよ。
ueetoresu: sore wa sakana ja arimasen. ebi desu yo.

ケート:そうですか。えっ、さんぜんごひゃくえん!? たかいですね。
keeto: sou desu ka. eh, sanzen gohyaku en!? takai desu ne.

ウエートレス:ええとね、この「かつどん」はきゅうひゃくえんです。おいしいですよ。
ueetoresu: eeto ne, kono "katsudon" wa kyuuhyaku en desu. Oishii desu yo.

ケート:それはなんですか。
keeto: sore wa nan desu ka?

ウエートレス:かつどんはおにくですよ。
ueetoresu: katsudon wa oniku desu yo.

ケート:じゃあ、それをおねがいします。
keeto: jaa, sore o onegaishimasu.

ウエートレス:はい、かしこまりました。
ueetoresu: hai, kashikomarimashita.
sensei
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Posted 2/1/10 , edited 2/1/10
表現ノート
Expression notes


(〜を)どうぞ
This phrase is used in respect to an item X that is being offered or presented. In the dialogue, the waitress uses it to present the menu to Kate. In other instances, it can be used when someone wishes you to come forth with the item being requested, such as the phrase onamae o douzo, which is a polite request for one's name.


どうも
This is a shortened form of the longer phrase どうもありがとうございます. In instances where you are simply acknowledging someone (and that someone is either your equal or someone lower than you in terms of social ranking), then you can abridge the entire phrase and just say どうも. In English, it can be equal to the causal phrase "thanks".



You may run into words that start with the syllable お. Some words include おにく, おさかな, and おなまえ (name). The お in these examples add social nuance and refinement to the word, and by no means change its meaning. The examples, therefore, can do just as well without the お.


(〜を)おねがいします
We commonly use this phrase to request for items in a restaurant, but it is specifically used for asking for abstract objects, such as a favor, an explanation, or even repairs. If you're requesting a concrete item, like a certain item in a store, it would be more appropriate to use the phrase (〜を)ください (o kudasai) instead. おねがいします, however, is considered somewhat more polite than ください, and may be used freely wherever you think it is necessary to be modest or to show respect to the person you're speaking to.


かしこまりました
This phrase is almost exclusively heard in the transaction context (i.e. between customer and store staff), and should not be used in cases where you understand what someone has said to you. In cases such as those, use わかりました instead.
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