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Yeah
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Search Wiktionary Look up yeah in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Yeah may refer to:

* Yes, a common English word

In music

* Yeah! (Brownsville Station album), a 1973 album
* "Yeah" (Kyuss song), a song on the 1992 album Blues for the Red Sun
* "Yeah" (Queen song), a song on the 1995 album Made in Heaven
* "Yeah!" (Paul Brandt song), a 1997 song by Paul Brandt
* Yeah (The Wannadies album), a 1999 album
* "Yeah" (Yolanda Adams song), a 1999 song
* "Yeah!" (Usher song), a 2004 song
* "Yeah" (LCD Soundsystem song), a 2004 song
* Yeah! (album), a 2006 album by Def Leppard
* Yeah (Park Jung Ah album), a 2006 album
* "Yeah Yeah", a 2006 song by Bodyrox
* Yeah Yeah Yeahs, an American rock band

[edit] See also

* "Yeh Yeh", a UK #1 single by Georgie Fame
* Yea

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Crunchyroll
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Crunchyroll Crunchyroll logo new smallest.png
Type Private
Founded June 2006
Headquarters United States San Francisco, California, USA
Industry Anime industry, Anime, and Video on Demand
Slogan Feed your need!
Website http://www.crunchyroll.com
Alexa rank 1559 (as of April 5,2010)[1]
Type of site Video streaming service
Registration Optional

Crunchyroll is an American website and international online community focused on streaming East Asian media including anime, manga, drama, music, electronic entertainment, and auto racing content. Founded in 2006 by a group of University of California-Berkeley undergraduate students. Crunchyroll’s distribution channel and partnership program delivers content to over five million online community members worldwide. Crunchyroll is funded by Venrock.[2][3]
[edit] History

Crunchyroll started in 2006 as a video upload and streaming site that specialized in hosting East Asian video content. Some of the content hosted on Crunchyroll, such as illicitly-produced fan-subbed versions of East Asian shows or bootlegs of official US releases of anime titles, were illegally uploaded by users without permission from any rights holders. However, Crunchyroll respected DMCA and removed copyrighted content when requested by the rights holder.

In 2008, Crunchyroll secured a capital investment of $4.05 million from the venture capital firm Venrock.[4] The investment drew criticism from anime distributors and licensors Bandai Entertainment and Funimation as the site continued to allow users to upload illegal copies of licensed titles.[5]

However, Crunchyroll eventually began securing legal distribution agreements with companies, including Gonzo, for an increasing number of titles. On January 8, 2009, after announcing a deal with TV Tokyo to host episodes of Naruto Shippuden, Crunchyroll stated that it was committed to removing all copyright infringing material from its site and to hosting only content to which it had legitimate distribution rights.[6]
[edit] References

1. ^ "Alexa ranking of Crunchyroll.com". http://www.alexa.com/data/details/traffic_details/crunchyroll.com.
2. ^ "Venrock". Venrock.com. 2008. http://venrock.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=content.contentDetail&id=9404. Retrieved 2008.
3. ^ "Crunchyroll CEO: Making Online Anime Pay". ICv2. 2008-12-15. http://www.icv2.com/articles/news/13922.html. Retrieved 2008-12-15.
4. ^ "Video Site with Unauthorized Anime Gets US$4M Capital". Anime News Network. 2008-03-11. http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/news/2008-03-11/video-site-with-unauthorized-anime-gets-us$4m-venture. Retrieved 2009-02-04.
5. ^ "Funimation, Bandai Entertainment Respond on Crunchyroll". Anime News Network. 2008-03-12. http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/news/2008-03-12/funimation-responds-to-crunchyroll-us$4m-funding. Retrieved 2009-02-04.
6. ^ "TV Tokyo to Stream Naruto via Crunchyroll Worldwide". Anime News Network. 2008-11-17. http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/news/2008-11-17/tv-tokyo-to-also-stream-naruto-through-crunchyroll. Retrieved 2009-02-04.

[edit] External links

* Official website

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Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crunchyroll"
Categories: United States company stubs | Companies based in San Francisco, California | Companies established in 2006 | Anime industry | Anime and manga websites
Posted 4/30/10
Friendship
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Value that is found in friendships is often the result of a friend demonstrating the following on a consistent basis:

* the tendency to desire what is best for the other
* sympathy and empathy
* honesty, perhaps in situations where it may be difficult for others to speak the truth, especially in terms of pointing out the perceived faults of one's counterpart
* mutual understanding

In a comparison of personal relationships, friendship is considered to be closer than association, although there is a range of degrees of intimacy in both friendships and associations. Friendship and association can be thought of as spanning across the same continuum. The study of friendship is included in sociology, social psychology, anthropology, philosophy, and zoology. Various theories of friendship have been proposed, among which are social exchange theory, equity theory, relational dialectics, and attachment styles.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Cultural variations
o 1.1 Rome
o 1.2 Russia
o 1.3 Asia
o 1.4 Modern west
+ 1.4.1 Decline of friendships in the U.S.
* 2 Developmental issues
* 3 Types of friendships
* 4 Friendship and health
o 4.1 Love
* 5 Non-personal friendships
* 6 Interspecies friendship and animal friendship
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 9 Further reading
* 10 External links

[edit] Cultural variations
[edit] Rome
This section's tone or style may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. Specific concerns may be found on the talk page. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (July 2009)

Cicero had his own beliefs on friendship. Cicero believed that in order to have a true friendship with someone one must have complete honesty, truth and trust. Also, friends do things for each other without expectation of repayment. If a friend is about to do something wrong, one should not compromise one's morals. One should explain what is wrong about the action, and help one's friend understand what is right, because Cicero believed that ignorance is the cause of evil. Finally, friendships come to an end because one person in the friendship becomes evil. (On Friendship, Cicero)
[edit] Russia

The relationship is constructed differently in different cultures. In Russia, for example, one typically accords very few people the status of "friend". These friendships, however, make up in intensity what they lack in number. Friends are entitled to call each other by their first names alone, and to use diminutives. A norm of polite behaviour is addressing "acquaintances" by full first name plus patronymic. These could include relationships which elsewhere would be qualified as real friendships, such as workplace relationships of long standing, neighbors with whom one shares an occasional meal and visit, and so on. Physical contact between friends is expected, and friends, whether or not of the same sex, will embrace, sometimes kiss and walk in public with their arms around each other, or arm-in-arm, or hand-in-hand.
[edit] Asia

In the Middle East and Central Asia, male friendships, while less restricted than in Russia, tend also to be reserved and respectable in nature. They may use nick names and diminutive forms of their first names.
[edit] Modern west

In the Western world, intimate physical contact has been sexualized in the public mind over the last one hundred years and is considered almost taboo in friendship, especially between two males. However, stylized hugging or kissing may be considered acceptable, depending on the context (see, for example, the kiss the tramp gives the kid in The Kid). In Spain and other Mediterranean countries, men may embrace each other in public and kiss each other on the cheek. This is not limited solely to older generations but rather is present throughout all generations. In young children throughout the modern Western world, friendship, usually of a homosocial nature, typically exhibits elements of a closeness and intimacy suppressed later in life in order to conform to societal standards.
[edit] Decline of friendships in the U.S.

According to a study documented in the June 2006 issue of the journal American Sociological Review, Americans are thought to be suffering a loss in the quality and quantity of close friendships since at least 1985.[1][2] The study states 25% of Americans have no close confidants, and the average total number of confidants per citizen has dropped from four to two.

According to the study:

* Americans' dependence on family as a safety net went up from 57% to 80%
* Americans' dependence on a partner or spouse went up from 5% to 9%
* Research has found a link between fewer friendships (especially in quality) and psychological and physiological regression

In recent times, it is postulated modern American friendships have lost the force and importance they had in antiquity. C. S. Lewis for example, in his The Four Loves, writes:
“ To the Ancients, Friendship seemed the happiest and most fully human of all loves; the crown of life and the school of virtue. The modern world, in comparison, ignores it. We admit of course that besides a wife and family a man needs a few 'friends'. But the very tone of the admission, and the sort of acquaintanceships which those who make it would describe as 'friendships', show clearly that what they are talking about has very little to do with that Philía which Aristotle classified among the virtues or that Amicitia on which Cicero wrote a book.[3] ”

Likewise, Paul Halsall claims that:
“ The intense emotional and affective relationships described in the past as "non-sexual" cannot be said to exist today: modern heterosexual men can be buddies, but unless drunk they cannot touch each other, or regularly sleep together. They cannot affirm that an emotional affective relationship with another man is the centrally important relationship in their lives. It is not going too far, is it, to claim that friendship – if used to translate Greek philia or Latin amicitia – hardly exists among heterosexual men in modern Western society. ”

Mark McLelland, writing in the Western Buddhist Review under his Buddhist name of Dharmachari Jñanavira (Article), more directly points to homophobia being at the root of a modern decline in the western tradition of friendship.[4]

Hence, in our cultural context where homosexual desire has for centuries been considered sinful, unnatural and a great evil, the experience of homoerotic desire can be very traumatic for some individuals and severely limit the potential for same-sex friendship. The Danish sociologist Henning Bech, for instance, writes of the anxiety which often accompanies developing intimacy between male friends:
“ "The more one has to assure oneself that one's relationship with another man is not homosexual, the more conscious one becomes that it might be, and the more necessary it becomes to protect oneself against it. The result is that friendship gradually becomes impossible.[5] ”

Their opinion that fear of being, or being seen as, homosexual has killed off western man's ability to form close friendships with other men is shared by Japanese psychologist Doi Takeo, who claims that male friendships in American society are fraught with homosexual anxiety and thus homophobia is a limiting factor stopping men from establishing deep friendships with other men.

The suggestion that friendship contains an ineluctable element of erotic desire is not new, but has been advanced by students of friendship ever since the time of the ancient Greeks, where it comes up in the writings of Plato. More recently, the Austrian philosopher Otto Weininger claimed that:
“ There is no friendship between men that has not an element of sexuality in it, however little accentuated it may be in the nature of the friendship, and however painful the idea of the sexual element would be. But it is enough to remember that there can be no friendship unless there has been some attraction to draw the men together. Much of the affection, protection, and nepotism between men is due to the presence of unsuspected sexual compatibility. (Sex and Character, 1903) ”

Recent western scholarship in gender theory and feminism concurs, as reflected in the writings of Eve Sedgwick in her The Epistemology of the Closet, and Jonathan Dollimore in his Sexual Dissidence and Cultural Change: Augustine to Wilde, Freud to Foucault.
[edit] Developmental issues

In the sequence of the emotional development of the individual, friendships come after parental bonding and before the pair bonding engaged in at the approach of maturity. In the intervening period between the end of early childhood and the onset of full adulthood, friendships are often the most important relationships in the emotional life of the adolescent, and are often more intense than relationships later in life.[6] However making friends seems to trouble lots of people; having no friends can be emotionally damaging in some cases. Friendships play a key role in suicidal thoughts of girls.[7]

A study by researchers from Purdue University found that post-secondary-education friendships (e.g. college, university) last longer than the friendships before it.[8]
[edit] Types of friendships

Some examples are as follows:

Best friend (or close friend): a person(s) with whom someone shares extremely strong interpersonal ties with as a friend.

Acquaintance: a friend, but sharing of emotional ties isn't present. An example would be a coworker with whom you enjoy eating lunch or having coffee, but would not look to for emotional support.

Soulmate: the name given to someone who is considered the ultimate, true, and eternal half of the other's soul, in which the two are now and forever meant to be together.

Pen pal: people who have a relationship via postal correspondence. They may or may not have met each other in person and may share either love, friendship, or simply an acquaintance between each other.

Internet friendship: a form of friendship or romance which takes place over the Internet.

Fruit flies[9], Fag hag (female)[10], or Fag stag (male)[11]: denotes a person (usually heterosexual) who forms deep ties or close friendships with gay men. Men (gay or straight) who have lesbian friends have been referred to lezbros or lesbros.[12] The term has often been claimed by these straight members in gay-straight friendships, however some feel that it is deregatory.[13][14]

Comrade: means "ally", "friend", or "colleague" in a military or (usually) left-wing political connotation. This is the feeling of affinity that draws people together in time of war or when people have a mutual enemy or even a common goal. Friendship can be mistaken for comradeship. Former New York Times war correspondent Chris Hedges wrote:
“ We feel in wartime comradeship. We confuse this with friendship, with love. There are those, who will insist that the comradeship of war is love — the exotic glow that makes us in war feel as one people, one entity, is real, but this is part of war's intoxication. [...] Friends are predetermined; friendship takes place between men and women who possess an intellectual and emotional affinity for each other. But comradeship – that ecstatic bliss that comes with belonging to the crowd in wartime – is within our reach. We can all have comrades.[15] ”

As a war ends, or a common enemy recedes, many comrades return to being strangers, who lack friendship and have little in common.

Casual relationship or "Friends with benefits": the sexual or near-sexual and emotional relationship between two people who don't expect or demand to share a formal romantic relationship.

Boston marriage: an American term used in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to denote two women that lived together in the same household independent of male support. Relationships were not necessarily sexual. It was used to quell fears of lesbians after World War I.

Blood brother or blood sister: may refer to people related by birth, or a circle of friends who swear loyalty by mingling the blood of each member together.

Cross-sex friendship is one that is defined by a person having a friend of the opposite sex: a male who has a female friend, or a female who has a male friend. Historically cross-sex friendships have been rare. This is caused by the fact that often men would labor in order to support themselves and their family, while women stayed at home and took care of the housework and children. The lack of contact led to men forming friendships exclusively with their colleagues, and women forming friendships with other stay at home mothers. However, as women attended schools more and as their presence in the workplace increased, the segregated friendship dynamic was altered, and cross-sex friendships began to increase.

Open relationship: a relationship, usually between two people, that agree each partner is free to have sexual intercourse with others outside the relationship. When this agreement is made between a married couple, it's called an open marriage.

Roommate: a person who shares a room or apartment (flat) with another person and do not share a familial or romantic relationship.

Imaginary friend: a non-physical friend created by a child. It may be seen as bad behavior or even taboo (some religious parents even consider their child to be possessed by an evil spirit), but is most commonly regarded as harmless, typical childhood behavior. The friend may or may not be human, and commonly serves a protective purpose.

Spiritual friendship: the Buddhist ideal of kalyana-mitra, that is a relationship between friends with a common interest, though one person may have more knowledge and experience than the other. The relationship is the responsibility of both friends and both bring something to it.

Frenemy: a blend of the words fr(iend) and enemy, the term frenemy refers to someone who pretends to be a friend but actually is an enemy---a proverbial wolf in sheep’s clothing in the world of friendships. Most people have encountered a frenemy at one time of another, either at school, at work, or lurking in their neighborhood. The term frenemy was reportedly coined by a sister of author and journalist Jessica Mitford in 1977, and popularized more than twenty years later on the third season of Sex and the City. While most research on friendship and health has focused on the positive relationship between the two, a frenemy is a potential source of irritation and stress. One study by psychologist Dr. Julianne Holt-Lunstad found that unpredictable love-hate relationships characterized by ambivalence can lead to elevations in blood pressure. In a previous study, the same researcher found that blood pressure is higher around friends for whom they have mixed feelings than it is when they’re around people whom they clearly dislike.[16]
[edit] Friendship and health

The conventional wisdom is that good friendships enhance an individual's sense of happiness and overall well-being. But a number of solid studies support the notion that strong social supports improve a woman’s prospects for good health and longevity. Conversely, it has been shown that loneliness and lack of social supports are linked to an increased risk of heart disease, viral infections, and cancer as well as higher mortality rates. Two female researchers have even termed friendship networks a “behavioral vaccine” that protects health and mental health[17].

While there is an impressive body of research linking friendship and health status, the precise reasons for this connection are still far from clear. Most of the studies are large prospective studies (that follow people over a period of time) and while there may be a correlation between the two variables (friendship and health status), researchers still don’t know if there is a cause-and-effect relationship, e.g. that good friendships actually improve health.

There are a number of theories that attempt to explain the link, including that: 1) Good friends encourage their friends to lead more healthy lifestyles; 2) Good friends encourage their friends to seek help and access services, when needed; 3) Good friend enhance their friend’s coping skills in dealing with illness and other health problems; and/or 4) Good friends actually affect physiological pathways that are protective of health[18].
[edit] Love

See also: Marriage

Love is closely related to friendship in that it involves strong interpersonal ties between two or more people.

In terms of interpersonal relationships, there are two distinct types of love:

1. Platonic love: is a deep and non-romantic connection or friendship between two individuals. It is love where the sexual element does not enter.
2. Romance (love): considered similar to Platonic love, but involves sexual elements.

[edit] Non-personal friendships

Although the term initially described relations between individuals, it is at times used for political purposes to describe relations between states or peoples ("the Franco-German friendship", for example), indicating in this case an affinity or mutuality of purpose between the two nations.

Regarding this aspect of international relations, Lord Palmerston said:
“ Therefore I say that it is a narrow policy to suppose that this country or that is to be marked out as the eternal ally or the perpetual enemy of England. We have no eternal allies, and we have no perpetual enemies. Our interests are eternal and perpetual, and those interests it is our duty to follow.[19] ”

This is often paraphrased as: "Nations have no permanent friends and no permanent enemies. Only permanent interests."

The word "friendship" can be used in political speeches as an emotive modifier. Friendship in international relationships often refers to the quality of historical, existing, or anticipated bilateral relationships..
[edit] Interspecies friendship and animal friendship
Yorkshire Terrier and Bichon
See also: Ethology, Altruism in animals, and Sociobiology

Friendship as a type of interpersonal relationship is found also among animals of higher intelligence, such as the higher mammals and some birds. Cross-species friendships are common between humans and domestic animals. Less common but noteworthy are friendships between an animal and another animal of a different species, such as a dog and cat.
[edit] See also

* Female bonding
* Fraternization
* Friendship network
* Human behavior
* Male bonding
* Mentoring
* Philosophy



* Relational care
* Social networking
* Social norm
* Social psychology
* Sociology
* Subculture
* Social contact
* Friendship in the Mortal Kombat video game series







[edit] References

1. ^ Kornblum, Janet (June 22, 2006). Study: 25% of Americans have no one to confide in. USA Today.
2. ^ McPherson, Smith-Lovin, Brashears (Volume 71, Number 3, June 2006). [1]. American Sociological Review.
3. ^ Lewis, 1974, p. 69
4. ^ Jñanavira, Dharmachari (2001). Homosexuality in the Japanese Buddhist Tradition. Western Buddhist Review. 3.
5. ^ Bech, 1997, p. 73
6. ^ Conger, Galambos, 1996, p. 204
7. ^ Grabmeier, Jeff (January 6, 2004). Friendships play key role in suicidal thoughts of girls, but not boys. Ohio State University.
8. ^ Spakrs, Glenn (August 7, 2007). Study shows what makes college buddies lifelong friends. Purdue University.
9. ^ Green, Jonathon (2006, page 549). Cassell's Dictionary of Slang. Sterling Publishing, ISBN 0304366366. http://books.google.com/books?id=my_ut0maeV4C&pg=PA440&dq=%22Donut+puncher%22+gay&sig=thPzRoHEPOezH1XHX499prJycNU. Retrieved 2007-11-16.
10. ^ Baker, Paul (2004). Fantabulosa: A Dictionary of Polari and Gay Slang. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 140. ISBN 0826473431. http://books.google.com/books?id=T72TJfZoywAC. Retrieved 2008-07-23.
11. ^ Green, Jonathon (2006). Cassell's Dictionary of Slang: A Major New Edition of the Market-leading Dictionary of Slang. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.. p. 485. ISBN 0304366366. http://books.google.com/books?id=5GpLcC4a5fAC. Retrieved 2008-07-23.
12. ^ LesBro: If You're A Boy Who Likes Girls Who Like Girls, Then You Are A Lesbro. And If You're Not, Maybe You Should Be], Joshua David Stein, Details, September 2009.
13. ^ Ordona, Robert (2008). "State of Gay Unions: The "Fag Stag"". Planet Out Inc. http://www.gay.com/news/roundups/package.html?sernum=6315. Retrieved 2008-07-23.
14. ^ Matarazzo, Heather (2005-03-29). "Who you callin' a fag hag?". The Advocate. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1589/is_2005_March_29/ai_n13610077. Retrieved 2008-03-09.
15. ^ Hedges, Chris (May 21, 2003). "Text of the Rockford College graduation speech". Rockford Register Star. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0520-13.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-25.
16. ^ http://[www.thefriendshipblog.com/blog/caution-frenemies-can-be-bad-your-health]
17. ^ Friendship, social support, and health. 2007 Sias, Patricia M; Bartoo, Heidi. In L'Abate, Luciano (Ed). (2007). Low-cost approaches to promote physical and mental health: Theory, research, and practice. (pp. 455-472). xxii, 526 pp. New York, NY, US: Springer Science + Business Media.
18. ^ Social networks and health: It's time for an intervention trial. 2005. Jorm, Anthony F. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. Vol 59(7) Jul 2005, 537-538.
19. ^ Speech to the House of Commons, Hansard (March 1, 1848)

[edit] Further reading

* Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics
* Bech, Henning (1997). When men meet: homosexuality and modernity. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0226040219.
* Bleske, April L, Buss, David M “Can Men and Women Be Just Friends?” In Personal Relationships, 2000, 7, 2, June, 131-151
* Cicero, Marcus Tullius. Laelius de Amicitia
* Conger, John Janeway; Galambos, Nancy (1996). Adolescence and youth: psychological development in a changing world. Longman. ISBN 978-0673992628.
* Hein, David (2004). "Farrer on Friendship, Sainthood, and the Will of God" in Captured by the Crucified: The Practical Theology of Austin Farrer. New York and London: Continuum/T. & T. Clark. p. 119 – 148
* Heyking, John von; Avramenko, Richard (2008). Friendship and Politics: Essays in Political Thought. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
* Kalmijn, Matthijs. “Sex Segregation of Friendship Networks: Individual and Structural Determinants of Having Cross-Sex Friends.” In European Sociological Review, 2002, 18, 1, Mar, 101-117
* Levine, Irene S. (2009). Best Friends Forever: Surviving a Breakup with Your Best Friend. New York:Overlook Press. ISBN 1590200403.
* Lewis, C. S. (1974). The Four Loves. Collins. ISBN 978-0006207993.
* Muraco, Anna. “Heterosexual Evaluations of Hypothetical Friendship Behavior Based on Sex and Sexual Orientation.” In Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 2005, 22, 5, Oct, 587-605
* Reeder, Heidi M. “The Effect of Gender Role Orientation on Same- and Cross-Sex Friendship Formation.” In Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 2003, 49, 3-4, Aug, 143-152
* Strogatz, Steven Henry, "The Calculus of Friendship : what a teacher and a student learned about life while corresponding about math", Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009. ISBN 9780691134932
* Yager, Jan (2002). When Friendship Hurts: How to Deal With Friends Who Betray, Abandon, or Wound You. New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc., Fireside Books.

[edit] External links
Search Wikiquote Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Friendship
Search Wiktionary Look up friendship in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Search Wikimedia Commons Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Friends

* BBC Radio 4 series "In Our Time", on Friendship, 2 March 2006
* Friendship by Paramhansa Yogananda
* Friendship at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
* English translation of Cicero's On Friendship


Friendship From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Value that is found in friendships is often the result of a friend demonstrating the following on a consistent basis: * the tendency to desire what is best for the other * sympathy and empathy * honesty, perhaps in situations where it may be difficult for others to speak the truth, especially in terms of pointing out the perceived faults of one's counterpart * mutual understanding In a comparison of personal relationships, friendship is considered to be closer than association, although there is a range of degrees of intimacy in both friendships and associations. Friendship and association can be thought of as spanning across the same continuum. The study of friendship is included in sociology, social psychology, anthropology, philosophy, and zoology. Various theories of friendship have been proposed, among which are social exchange theory, equity theory, relational dialectics, and attachment styles. Contents [hide] * 1 Cultural variations o 1.1 Rome o 1.2 Russia o 1.3 Asia o 1.4 Modern west + 1.4.1 Decline of friendships in the U.S. * 2 Developmental issues * 3 Types of friendships * 4 Friendship and health o 4.1 Love * 5 Non-personal friendships * 6 Interspecies friendship and animal friendship * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links [edit] Cultural variations [edit] Rome This section's tone or style may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. Specific concerns may be found on the talk page. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (July 2009) Cicero had his own beliefs on friendship. Cicero believed that in order to have a true friendship with someone one must have complete honesty, truth and trust. Also, friends do things for each other without expectation of repayment. If a friend is about to do something wrong, one should not compromise one's morals. One should explain what is wrong about the action, and help one's friend understand what is right, because Cicero believed that ignorance is the cause of evil. Finally, friendships come to an end because one person in the friendship becomes evil. (On Friendship, Cicero) [edit] Russia The relationship is constructed differently in different cultures. In Russia, for example, one typically accords very few people the status of "friend". These friendships, however, make up in intensity what they lack in number. Friends are entitled to call each other by their first names alone, and to use diminutives. A norm of polite behaviour is addressing "acquaintances" by full first name plus patronymic. These could include relationships which elsewhere would be qualified as real friendships, such as workplace relationships of long standing, neighbors with whom one shares an occasional meal and visit, and so on. Physical contact between friends is expected, and friends, whether or not of the same sex, will embrace, sometimes kiss and walk in public with their arms around each other, or arm-in-arm, or hand-in-hand. [edit] Asia In the Middle East and Central Asia, male friendships, while less restricted than in Russia, tend also to be reserved and respectable in nature. They may use nick names and diminutive forms of their first names. [edit] Modern west In the Western world, intimate physical contact has been sexualized in the public mind over the last one hundred years and is considered almost taboo in friendship, especially between two males. However, stylized hugging or kissing may be considered acceptable, depending on the context (see, for example, the kiss the tramp gives the kid in The Kid). In Spain and other Mediterranean countries, men may embrace each other in public and kiss each other on the cheek. This is not limited solely to older generations but rather is present throughout all generations. In young children throughout the modern Western world, friendship, usually of a homosocial nature, typically exhibits elements of a closeness and intimacy suppressed later in life in order to conform to societal standards. [edit] Decline of friendships in the U.S. According to a study documented in the June 2006 issue of the journal American Sociological Review, Americans are thought to be suffering a loss in the quality and quantity of close friendships since at least 1985.[1][2] The study states 25% of Americans have no close confidants, and the average total number of confidants per citizen has dropped from four to two. According to the study: * Americans' dependence on family as a safety net went up from 57% to 80% * Americans' dependence on a partner or spouse went up from 5% to 9% * Research has found a link between fewer friendships (especially in quality) and psychological and physiological regression In recent times, it is postulated modern American friendships have lost the force and importance they had in antiquity. C. S. Lewis for example, in his The Four Loves, writes: “ To the Ancients, Friendship seemed the happiest and most fully human of all loves; the crown of life and the school of virtue. The modern world, in comparison, ignores it. We admit of course that besides a wife and family a man needs a few 'friends'. But the very tone of the admission, and the sort of acquaintanceships which those who make it would describe as 'friendships', show clearly that what they are talking about has very little to do with that Philía which Aristotle classified among the virtues or that Amicitia on which Cicero wrote a book.[3] ” Likewise, Paul Halsall claims that: “ The intense emotional and affective relationships described in the past as "non-sexual" cannot be said to exist today: modern heterosexual men can be buddies, but unless drunk they cannot touch each other, or regularly sleep together. They cannot affirm that an emotional affective relationship with another man is the centrally important relationship in their lives. It is not going too far, is it, to claim that friendship – if used to translate Greek philia or Latin amicitia – hardly exists among heterosexual men in modern Western society. ” Mark McLelland, writing in the Western Buddhist Review under his Buddhist name of Dharmachari Jñanavira (Article), more directly points to homophobia being at the root of a modern decline in the western tradition of friendship.[4] Hence, in our cultural context where homosexual desire has for centuries been considered sinful, unnatural and a great evil, the experience of homoerotic desire can be very traumatic for some individuals and severely limit the potential for same-sex friendship. The Danish sociologist Henning Bech, for instance, writes of the anxiety which often accompanies developing intimacy between male friends: “ "The more one has to assure oneself that one's relationship with another man is not homosexual, the more conscious one becomes that it might be, and the more necessary it becomes to protect oneself against it. The result is that friendship gradually becomes impossible.[5] ” Their opinion that fear of being, or being seen as, homosexual has killed off western man's ability to form close friendships with other men is shared by Japanese psychologist Doi Takeo, who claims that male friendships in American society are fraught with homosexual anxiety and thus homophobia is a limiting factor stopping men from establishing deep friendships with other men. The suggestion that friendship contains an ineluctable element of erotic desire is not new, but has been advanced by students of friendship ever since the time of the ancient Greeks, where it comes up in the writings of Plato. More recently, the Austrian philosopher Otto Weininger claimed that: “ There is no friendship between men that has not an element of sexuality in it, however little accentuated it may be in the nature of the friendship, and however painful the idea of the sexual element would be. But it is enough to remember that there can be no friendship unless there has been some attraction to draw the men together. Much of the affection, protection, and nepotism between men is due to the presence of unsuspected sexual compatibility. (Sex and Character, 1903) ” Recent western scholarship in gender theory and feminism concurs, as reflected in the writings of Eve Sedgwick in her The Epistemology of the Closet, and Jonathan Dollimore in his Sexual Dissidence and Cultural Change: Augustine to Wilde, Freud to Foucault. [edit] Developmental issues In the sequence of the emotional development of the individual, friendships come after parental bonding and before the pair bonding engaged in at the approach of maturity. In the intervening period between the end of early childhood and the onset of full adulthood, friendships are often the most important relationships in the emotional life of the adolescent, and are often more intense than relationships later in life.[6] However making friends seems to trouble lots of people; having no friends can be emotionally damaging in some cases. Friendships play a key role in suicidal thoughts of girls.[7] A study by researchers from Purdue University found that post-secondary-education friendships (e.g. college, university) last longer than the friendships before it.[8] [edit] Types of friendships Some examples are as follows: Best friend (or close friend): a person(s) with whom someone shares extremely strong interpersonal ties with as a friend. Acquaintance: a friend, but sharing of emotional ties isn't present. An example would be a coworker with whom you enjoy eating lunch or having coffee, but would not look to for emotional support. Soulmate: the name given to someone who is considered the ultimate, true, and eternal half of the other's soul, in which the two are now and forever meant to be together. Pen pal: people who have a relationship via postal correspondence. They may or may not have met each other in person and may share either love, friendship, or simply an acquaintance between each other. Internet friendship: a form of friendship or romance which takes place over the Internet. Fruit flies[9], Fag hag (female)[10], or Fag stag (male)[11]: denotes a person (usually heterosexual) who forms deep ties or close friendships with gay men. Men (gay or straight) who have lesbian friends have been referred to lezbros or lesbros.[12] The term has often been claimed by these straight members in gay-straight friendships, however some feel that it is deregatory.[13][14] Comrade: means "ally", "friend", or "colleague" in a military or (usually) left-wing political connotation. This is the feeling of affinity that draws people together in time of war or when people have a mutual enemy or even a common goal. Friendship can be mistaken for comradeship. Former New York Times war correspondent Chris Hedges wrote: “ We feel in wartime comradeship. We confuse this with friendship, with love. There are those, who will insist that the comradeship of war is love — the exotic glow that makes us in war feel as one people, one entity, is real, but this is part of war's intoxication. [...] Friends are predetermined; friendship takes place between men and women who possess an intellectual and emotional affinity for each other. But comradeship – that ecstatic bliss that comes with belonging to the crowd in wartime – is within our reach. We can all have comrades.[15] ” As a war ends, or a common enemy recedes, many comrades return to being strangers, who lack friendship and have little in common. Casual relationship or "Friends with benefits": the sexual or near-sexual and emotional relationship between two people who don't expect or demand to share a formal romantic relationship. Boston marriage: an American term used in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to denote two women that lived together in the same household independent of male support. Relationships were not necessarily sexual. It was used to quell fears of lesbians after World War I. Blood brother or blood sister: may refer to people related by birth, or a circle of friends who swear loyalty by mingling the blood of each member together. Cross-sex friendship is one that is defined by a person having a friend of the opposite sex: a male who has a female friend, or a female who has a male friend. Historically cross-sex friendships have been rare. This is caused by the fact that often men would labor in order to support themselves and their family, while women stayed at home and took care of the housework and children. The lack of contact led to men forming friendships exclusively with their colleagues, and women forming friendships with other stay at home mothers. However, as women attended schools more and as their presence in the workplace increased, the segregated friendship dynamic was altered, and cross-sex friendships began to increase. Open relationship: a relationship, usually between two people, that agree each partner is free to have sexual intercourse with others outside the relationship. When this agreement is made between a married couple, it's called an open marriage. Roommate: a person who shares a room or apartment (flat) with another person and do not share a familial or romantic relationship. Imaginary friend: a non-physical friend created by a child. It may be seen as bad behavior or even taboo (some religious parents even consider their child to be possessed by an evil spirit), but is most commonly regarded as harmless, typical childhood behavior. The friend may or may not be human, and commonly serves a protective purpose. Spiritual friendship: the Buddhist ideal of kalyana-mitra, that is a relationship between friends with a common interest, though one person may have more knowledge and experience than the other. The relationship is the responsibility of both friends and both bring something to it. Frenemy: a blend of the words fr(iend) and enemy, the term frenemy refers to someone who pretends to be a friend but actually is an enemy---a proverbial wolf in sheep’s clothing in the world of friendships. Most people have encountered a frenemy at one time of another, either at school, at work, or lurking in their neighborhood. The term frenemy was reportedly coined by a sister of author and journalist Jessica Mitford in 1977, and popularized more than twenty years later on the third season of Sex and the City. While most research on friendship and health has focused on the positive relationship between the two, a frenemy is a potential source of irritation and stress. One study by psychologist Dr. Julianne Holt-Lunstad found that unpredictable love-hate relationships characterized by ambivalence can lead to elevations in blood pressure. In a previous study, the same researcher found that blood pressure is higher around friends for whom they have mixed feelings than it is when they’re around people whom they clearly dislike.[16] [edit] Friendship and health The conventional wisdom is that good friendships enhance an individual's sense of happiness and overall well-being. But a number of solid studies support the notion that strong social supports improve a woman’s prospects for good health and longevity. Conversely, it has been shown that loneliness and lack of social supports are linked to an increased risk of heart disease, viral infections, and cancer as well as higher mortality rates. Two female researchers have even termed friendship networks a “behavioral vaccine” that protects health and mental health[17]. While there is an impressive body of research linking friendship and health status, the precise reasons for this connection are still far from clear. Most of the studies are large prospective studies (that follow people over a period of time) and while there may be a correlation between the two variables (friendship and health status), researchers still don’t know if there is a cause-and-effect relationship, e.g. that good friendships actually improve health. There are a number of theories that attempt to explain the link, including that: 1) Good friends encourage their friends to lead more healthy lifestyles; 2) Good friends encourage their friends to seek help and access services, when needed; 3) Good friend enhance their friend’s coping skills in dealing with illness and other health problems; and/or 4) Good friends actually affect physiological pathways that are protective of health[18]. [edit] Love See also: Marriage Love is closely related to friendship in that it involves strong interpersonal ties between two or more people. In terms of interpersonal relationships, there are two distinct types of love: 1. Platonic love: is a deep and non-romantic connection or friendship between two individuals. It is love where the sexual element does not enter. 2. Romance (love): considered similar to Platonic love, but involves sexual elements. [edit] Non-personal friendships Although the term initially described relations between individuals, it is at times used for political purposes to describe relations between states or peoples ("the Franco-German friendship", for example), indicating in this case an affinity or mutuality of purpose between the two nations. Regarding this aspect of international relations, Lord Palmerston said: “ Therefore I say that it is a narrow policy to suppose that this country or that is to be marked out as the eternal ally or the perpetual enemy of England. We have no eternal allies, and we have no perpetual enemies. Our interests are eternal and perpetual, and those interests it is our duty to follow.[19] ” This is often paraphrased as: "Nations have no permanent friends and no permanent enemies. Only permanent interests." The word "friendship" can be used in political speeches as an emotive modifier. Friendship in international relationships often refers to the quality of historical, existing, or anticipated bilateral relationships.. [edit] Interspecies friendship and animal friendship Yorkshire Terrier and Bichon See also: Ethology, Altruism in animals, and Sociobiology Friendship as a type of interpersonal relationship is found also among animals of higher intelligence, such as the higher mammals and some birds. Cross-species friendships are common between humans and domestic animals. Less common but noteworthy are friendships between an animal and another animal of a different species, such as a dog and cat. [edit] See also * Female bonding * Fraternization * Friendship network * Human behavior * Male bonding * Mentoring * Philosophy * Relational care * Social networking * Social norm * Social psychology * Sociology * Subculture * Social contact * Friendship in the Mortal Kombat video game series [edit] References 1. ^ Kornblum, Janet (June 22, 2006). Study: 25% of Americans have no one to confide in. USA Today. 2. ^ McPherson, Smith-Lovin, Brashears (Volume 71, Number 3, June 2006). [1]. American Sociological Review. 3. ^ Lewis, 1974, p. 69 4. ^ Jñanavira, Dharmachari (2001). Homosexuality in the Japanese Buddhist Tradition. Western Buddhist Review. 3. 5. ^ Bech, 1997, p. 73 6. ^ Conger, Galambos, 1996, p. 204 7. ^ Grabmeier, Jeff (January 6, 2004). Friendships play key role in suicidal thoughts of girls, but not boys. Ohio State University. 8. ^ Spakrs, Glenn (August 7, 2007). Study shows what makes college buddies lifelong friends. Purdue University. 9. ^ Green, Jonathon (2006, page 549). Cassell's Dictionary of Slang. Sterling Publishing, ISBN 0304366366. http://books.google.com/books?id=my_ut0maeV4C&pg=PA440&dq=%22Donut+puncher%22+gay&sig=thPzRoHEPOezH1XHX499prJycNU. Retrieved 2007-11-16. 10. ^ Baker, Paul (2004). Fantabulosa: A Dictionary of Polari and Gay Slang. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 140. ISBN 0826473431. http://books.google.com/books?id=T72TJfZoywAC. Retrieved 2008-07-23. 11. ^ Green, Jonathon (2006). Cassell's Dictionary of Slang: A Major New Edition of the Market-leading Dictionary of Slang. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.. p. 485. ISBN 0304366366. http://books.google.com/books?id=5GpLcC4a5fAC. Retrieved 2008-07-23. 12. ^ LesBro: If You're A Boy Who Likes Girls Who Like Girls, Then You Are A Lesbro. And If You're Not, Maybe You Should Be], Joshua David Stein, Details, September 2009. 13. ^ Ordona, Robert (2008). "State of Gay Unions: The "Fag Stag"". Planet Out Inc. http://www.gay.com/news/roundups/package.html?sernum=6315. Retrieved 2008-07-23. 14. ^ Matarazzo, Heather (2005-03-29). "Who you callin' a fag hag?". The Advocate. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1589/is_2005_March_29/ai_n13610077. Retrieved 2008-03-09. 15. ^ Hedges, Chris (May 21, 2003). "Text of the Rockford College graduation speech". Rockford Register Star. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0520-13.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 16. ^ http://[www.thefriendshipblog.com/blog/caution-frenemies-can-be-bad-your-health] 17. ^ Friendship, social support, and health. 2007 Sias, Patricia M; Bartoo, Heidi. In L'Abate, Luciano (Ed). (2007). Low-cost approaches to promote physical and mental health: Theory, research, and practice. (pp. 455-472). xxii, 526 pp. New York, NY, US: Springer Science + Business Media. 18. ^ Social networks and health: It's time for an intervention trial. 2005. Jorm, Anthony F. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. Vol 59(7) Jul 2005, 537-538. 19. ^ Speech to the House of Commons, Hansard (March 1, 1848) [edit] Further reading * Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics * Bech, Henning (1997). When men meet: homosexuality and modernity. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0226040219. * Bleske, April L, Buss, David M “Can Men and Women Be Just Friends?” In Personal Relationships, 2000, 7, 2, June, 131-151 * Cicero, Marcus Tullius. Laelius de Amicitia * Conger, John Janeway; Galambos, Nancy (1996). Adolescence and youth: psychological development in a changing world. Longman. ISBN 978-0673992628. * Hein, David (2004). "Farrer on Friendship, Sainthood, and the Will of God" in Captured by the Crucified: The Practical Theology of Austin Farrer. New York and London: Continuum/T. & T. Clark. p. 119 – 148 * Heyking, John von; Avramenko, Richard (2008). Friendship and Politics: Essays in Political Thought. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. * Kalmijn, Matthijs. “Sex Segregation of Friendship Networks: Individual and Structural Determinants of Having Cross-Sex Friends.” In European Sociological Review, 2002, 18, 1, Mar, 101-117 * Levine, Irene S. (2009). Best Friends Forever: Surviving a Breakup with Your Best Friend. New York:Overlook Press. ISBN 1590200403. * Lewis, C. S. (1974). The Four Loves. Collins. ISBN 978-0006207993. * Muraco, Anna. “Heterosexual Evaluations of Hypothetical Friendship Behavior Based on Sex and Sexual Orientation.” In Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 2005, 22, 5, Oct, 587-605 * Reeder, Heidi M. “The Effect of Gender Role Orientation on Same- and Cross-Sex Friendship Formation.” In Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 2003, 49, 3-4, Aug, 143-152 * Strogatz, Steven Henry, "The Calculus of Friendship : what a teacher and a student learned about life while corresponding about math", Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009. ISBN 9780691134932 * Yager, Jan (2002). When Friendship Hurts: How to Deal With Friends Who Betray, Abandon, or Wound You. New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc., Fireside Books. [edit] External links Search Wikiquote Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Friendship Search Wiktionary Look up friendship in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Search Wikimedia Commons Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Friends * BBC Radio 4 series "In Our Time", on Friendship, 2 March 2006 * Friendship by Paramhansa Yogananda * Friendship at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy * English translation of Cicero's On Friendship
Posted 4/30/10 , edited 4/30/10
Friendship
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Value that is found in friendships is often the result of a friend demonstrating the following on a consistent basis:

* the tendency to desire what is best for the other
* sympathy and empathy
* honesty, perhaps in situations where it may be difficult for others to speak the truth, especially in terms of pointing out the perceived faults of one's counterpart
* mutual understanding

In a comparison of personal relationships, friendship is considered to be closer than association, although there is a range of degrees of intimacy in both friendships and associations. Friendship and association can be thought of as spanning across the same continuum. The study of friendship is included in sociology, social psychology, anthropology, philosophy, and zoology. Various theories of friendship have been proposed, among which are social exchange theory, equity theory, relational dialectics, and attachment styles.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Cultural variations
o 1.1 Rome
o 1.2 Russia
o 1.3 Asia
o 1.4 Modern west
+ 1.4.1 Decline of friendships in the U.S.
* 2 Developmental issues
* 3 Types of friendships
* 4 Friendship and health
o 4.1 Love
* 5 Non-personal friendships
* 6 Interspecies friendship and animal friendship
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 9 Further reading
* 10 External links

[edit] Cultural variations
[edit] Rome
This section's tone or style may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. Specific concerns may be found on the talk page. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (July 2009)

Cicero had his own beliefs on friendship. Cicero believed that in order to have a true friendship with someone one must have complete honesty, truth and trust. Also, friends do things for each other without expectation of repayment. If a friend is about to do something wrong, one should not compromise one's morals. One should explain what is wrong about the action, and help one's friend understand what is right, because Cicero believed that ignorance is the cause of evil. Finally, friendships come to an end because one person in the friendship becomes evil. (On Friendship, Cicero)
[edit] Russia

The relationship is constructed differently in different cultures. In Russia, for example, one typically accords very few people the status of "friend". These friendships, however, make up in intensity what they lack in number. Friends are entitled to call each other by their first names alone, and to use diminutives. A norm of polite behaviour is addressing "acquaintances" by full first name plus patronymic. These could include relationships which elsewhere would be qualified as real friendships, such as workplace relationships of long standing, neighbors with whom one shares an occasional meal and visit, and so on. Physical contact between friends is expected, and friends, whether or not of the same sex, will embrace, sometimes kiss and walk in public with their arms around each other, or arm-in-arm, or hand-in-hand.
[edit] Asia

In the Middle East and Central Asia, male friendships, while less restricted than in Russia, tend also to be reserved and respectable in nature. They may use nick names and diminutive forms of their first names.
[edit] Modern west

In the Western world, intimate physical contact has been sexualized in the public mind over the last one hundred years and is considered almost taboo in friendship, especially between two males. However, stylized hugging or kissing may be considered acceptable, depending on the context (see, for example, the kiss the tramp gives the kid in The Kid). In Spain and other Mediterranean countries, men may embrace each other in public and kiss each other on the cheek. This is not limited solely to older generations but rather is present throughout all generations. In young children throughout the modern Western world, friendship, usually of a homosocial nature, typically exhibits elements of a closeness and intimacy suppressed later in life in order to conform to societal standards.
[edit] Decline of friendships in the U.S.

According to a study documented in the June 2006 issue of the journal American Sociological Review, Americans are thought to be suffering a loss in the quality and quantity of close friendships since at least 1985.[1][2] The study states 25% of Americans have no close confidants, and the average total number of confidants per citizen has dropped from four to two.

According to the study:

* Americans' dependence on family as a safety net went up from 57% to 80%
* Americans' dependence on a partner or spouse went up from 5% to 9%
* Research has found a link between fewer friendships (especially in quality) and psychological and physiological regression

In recent times, it is postulated modern American friendships have lost the force and importance they had in antiquity. C. S. Lewis for example, in his The Four Loves, writes:
“ To the Ancients, Friendship seemed the happiest and most fully human of all loves; the crown of life and the school of virtue. The modern world, in comparison, ignores it. We admit of course that besides a wife and family a man needs a few 'friends'. But the very tone of the admission, and the sort of acquaintanceships which those who make it would describe as 'friendships', show clearly that what they are talking about has very little to do with that Philía which Aristotle classified among the virtues or that Amicitia on which Cicero wrote a book.[3] ”

Likewise, Paul Halsall claims that:
“ The intense emotional and affective relationships described in the past as "non-sexual" cannot be said to exist today: modern heterosexual men can be buddies, but unless drunk they cannot touch each other, or regularly sleep together. They cannot affirm that an emotional affective relationship with another man is the centrally important relationship in their lives. It is not going too far, is it, to claim that friendship – if used to translate Greek philia or Latin amicitia – hardly exists among heterosexual men in modern Western society. ”

Mark McLelland, writing in the Western Buddhist Review under his Buddhist name of Dharmachari Jñanavira (Article), more directly points to homophobia being at the root of a modern decline in the western tradition of friendship.[4]

Hence, in our cultural context where homosexual desire has for centuries been considered sinful, unnatural and a great evil, the experience of homoerotic desire can be very traumatic for some individuals and severely limit the potential for same-sex friendship. The Danish sociologist Henning Bech, for instance, writes of the anxiety which often accompanies developing intimacy between male friends:
“ "The more one has to assure oneself that one's relationship with another man is not homosexual, the more conscious one becomes that it might be, and the more necessary it becomes to protect oneself against it. The result is that friendship gradually becomes impossible.[5] ”

Their opinion that fear of being, or being seen as, homosexual has killed off western man's ability to form close friendships with other men is shared by Japanese psychologist Doi Takeo, who claims that male friendships in American society are fraught with homosexual anxiety and thus homophobia is a limiting factor stopping men from establishing deep friendships with other men.

The suggestion that friendship contains an ineluctable element of erotic desire is not new, but has been advanced by students of friendship ever since the time of the ancient Greeks, where it comes up in the writings of Plato. More recently, the Austrian philosopher Otto Weininger claimed that:
“ There is no friendship between men that has not an element of sexuality in it, however little accentuated it may be in the nature of the friendship, and however painful the idea of the sexual element would be. But it is enough to remember that there can be no friendship unless there has been some attraction to draw the men together. Much of the affection, protection, and nepotism between men is due to the presence of unsuspected sexual compatibility. (Sex and Character, 1903) ”

Recent western scholarship in gender theory and feminism concurs, as reflected in the writings of Eve Sedgwick in her The Epistemology of the Closet, and Jonathan Dollimore in his Sexual Dissidence and Cultural Change: Augustine to Wilde, Freud to Foucault.
[edit] Developmental issues

In the sequence of the emotional development of the individual, friendships come after parental bonding and before the pair bonding engaged in at the approach of maturity. In the intervening period between the end of early childhood and the onset of full adulthood, friendships are often the most important relationships in the emotional life of the adolescent, and are often more intense than relationships later in life.[6] However making friends seems to trouble lots of people; having no friends can be emotionally damaging in some cases. Friendships play a key role in suicidal thoughts of girls.[7]

A study by researchers from Purdue University found that post-secondary-education friendships (e.g. college, university) last longer than the friendships before it.[8]
[edit] Types of friendships

Some examples are as follows:

Best friend (or close friend): a person(s) with whom someone shares extremely strong interpersonal ties with as a friend.

Acquaintance: a friend, but sharing of emotional ties isn't present. An example would be a coworker with whom you enjoy eating lunch or having coffee, but would not look to for emotional support.

Soulmate: the name given to someone who is considered the ultimate, true, and eternal half of the other's soul, in which the two are now and forever meant to be together.

Pen pal: people who have a relationship via postal correspondence. They may or may not have met each other in person and may share either love, friendship, or simply an acquaintance between each other.

Internet friendship: a form of friendship or romance which takes place over the Internet.

Fruit flies[9], Fag hag (female)[10], or Fag stag (male)[11]: denotes a person (usually heterosexual) who forms deep ties or close friendships with gay men. Men (gay or straight) who have lesbian friends have been referred to lezbros or lesbros.[12] The term has often been claimed by these straight members in gay-straight friendships, however some feel that it is deregatory.[13][14]

Comrade: means "ally", "friend", or "colleague" in a military or (usually) left-wing political connotation. This is the feeling of affinity that draws people together in time of war or when people have a mutual enemy or even a common goal. Friendship can be mistaken for comradeship. Former New York Times war correspondent Chris Hedges wrote:
“ We feel in wartime comradeship. We confuse this with friendship, with love. There are those, who will insist that the comradeship of war is love — the exotic glow that makes us in war feel as one people, one entity, is real, but this is part of war's intoxication. [...] Friends are predetermined; friendship takes place between men and women who possess an intellectual and emotional affinity for each other. But comradeship – that ecstatic bliss that comes with belonging to the crowd in wartime – is within our reach. We can all have comrades.[15] ”

As a war ends, or a common enemy recedes, many comrades return to being strangers, who lack friendship and have little in common.

Casual relationship or "Friends with benefits": the sexual or near-sexual and emotional relationship between two people who don't expect or demand to share a formal romantic relationship.

Boston marriage: an American term used in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to denote two women that lived together in the same household independent of male support. Relationships were not necessarily sexual. It was used to quell fears of lesbians after World War I.

Blood brother or blood sister: may refer to people related by birth, or a circle of friends who swear loyalty by mingling the blood of each member together.

Cross-sex friendship is one that is defined by a person having a friend of the opposite sex: a male who has a female friend, or a female who has a male friend. Historically cross-sex friendships have been rare. This is caused by the fact that often men would labor in order to support themselves and their family, while women stayed at home and took care of the housework and children. The lack of contact led to men forming friendships exclusively with their colleagues, and women forming friendships with other stay at home mothers. However, as women attended schools more and as their presence in the workplace increased, the segregated friendship dynamic was altered, and cross-sex friendships began to increase.

Open relationship: a relationship, usually between two people, that agree each partner is free to have sexual intercourse with others outside the relationship. When this agreement is made between a married couple, it's called an open marriage.

Roommate: a person who shares a room or apartment (flat) with another person and do not share a familial or romantic relationship.

Imaginary friend: a non-physical friend created by a child. It may be seen as bad behavior or even taboo (some religious parents even consider their child to be possessed by an evil spirit), but is most commonly regarded as harmless, typical childhood behavior. The friend may or may not be human, and commonly serves a protective purpose.

Spiritual friendship: the Buddhist ideal of kalyana-mitra, that is a relationship between friends with a common interest, though one person may have more knowledge and experience than the other. The relationship is the responsibility of both friends and both bring something to it.

Frenemy: a blend of the words fr(iend) and enemy, the term frenemy refers to someone who pretends to be a friend but actually is an enemy---a proverbial wolf in sheep’s clothing in the world of friendships. Most people have encountered a frenemy at one time of another, either at school, at work, or lurking in their neighborhood. The term frenemy was reportedly coined by a sister of author and journalist Jessica Mitford in 1977, and popularized more than twenty years later on the third season of Sex and the City. While most research on friendship and health has focused on the positive relationship between the two, a frenemy is a potential source of irritation and stress. One study by psychologist Dr. Julianne Holt-Lunstad found that unpredictable love-hate relationships characterized by ambivalence can lead to elevations in blood pressure. In a previous study, the same researcher found that blood pressure is higher around friends for whom they have mixed feelings than it is when they’re around people whom they clearly dislike.[16]
[edit] Friendship and health

The conventional wisdom is that good friendships enhance an individual's sense of happiness and overall well-being. But a number of solid studies support the notion that strong social supports improve a woman’s prospects for good health and longevity. Conversely, it has been shown that loneliness and lack of social supports are linked to an increased risk of heart disease, viral infections, and cancer as well as higher mortality rates. Two female researchers have even termed friendship networks a “behavioral vaccine” that protects health and mental health[17].

While there is an impressive body of research linking friendship and health status, the precise reasons for this connection are still far from clear. Most of the studies are large prospective studies (that follow people over a period of time) and while there may be a correlation between the two variables (friendship and health status), researchers still don’t know if there is a cause-and-effect relationship, e.g. that good friendships actually improve health.

There are a number of theories that attempt to explain the link, including that: 1) Good friends encourage their friends to lead more healthy lifestyles; 2) Good friends encourage their friends to seek help and access services, when needed; 3) Good friend enhance their friend’s coping skills in dealing with illness and other health problems; and/or 4) Good friends actually affect physiological pathways that are protective of health[18].
[edit] Love

See also: Marriage

Love is closely related to friendship in that it involves strong interpersonal ties between two or more people.

In terms of interpersonal relationships, there are two distinct types of love:

1. Platonic love: is a deep and non-romantic connection or friendship between two individuals. It is love where the sexual element does not enter.
2. Romance (love): considered similar to Platonic love, but involves sexual elements.

[edit] Non-personal friendships

Although the term initially described relations between individuals, it is at times used for political purposes to describe relations between states or peoples ("the Franco-German friendship", for example), indicating in this case an affinity or mutuality of purpose between the two nations.

Regarding this aspect of international relations, Lord Palmerston said:
“ Therefore I say that it is a narrow policy to suppose that this country or that is to be marked out as the eternal ally or the perpetual enemy of England. We have no eternal allies, and we have no perpetual enemies. Our interests are eternal and perpetual, and those interests it is our duty to follow.[19] ”

This is often paraphrased as: "Nations have no permanent friends and no permanent enemies. Only permanent interests."

The word "friendship" can be used in political speeches as an emotive modifier. Friendship in international relationships often refers to the quality of historical, existing, or anticipated bilateral relationships..
[edit] Interspecies friendship and animal friendship
Yorkshire Terrier and Bichon
See also: Ethology, Altruism in animals, and Sociobiology

Friendship as a type of interpersonal relationship is found also among animals of higher intelligence, such as the higher mammals and some birds. Cross-species friendships are common between humans and domestic animals. Less common but noteworthy are friendships between an animal and another animal of a different species, such as a dog and cat.
[edit] See also

* Female bonding
* Fraternization
* Friendship network
* Human behavior
* Male bonding
* Mentoring
* Philosophy



* Relational care
* Social networking
* Social norm
* Social psychology
* Sociology
* Subculture
* Social contact
* Friendship in the Mortal Kombat video game series







[edit] References

1. ^ Kornblum, Janet (June 22, 2006). Study: 25% of Americans have no one to confide in. USA Today.
2. ^ McPherson, Smith-Lovin, Brashears (Volume 71, Number 3, June 2006). [1]. American Sociological Review.
3. ^ Lewis, 1974, p. 69
4. ^ Jñanavira, Dharmachari (2001). Homosexuality in the Japanese Buddhist Tradition. Western Buddhist Review. 3.
5. ^ Bech, 1997, p. 73
6. ^ Conger, Galambos, 1996, p. 204
7. ^ Grabmeier, Jeff (January 6, 2004). Friendships play key role in suicidal thoughts of girls, but not boys. Ohio State University.
8. ^ Spakrs, Glenn (August 7, 2007). Study shows what makes college buddies lifelong friends. Purdue University.
9. ^ Green, Jonathon (2006, page 549). Cassell's Dictionary of Slang. Sterling Publishing, ISBN 0304366366. http://books.google.com/books?id=my_ut0maeV4C&pg=PA440&dq=%22Donut+puncher%22+gay&sig=thPzRoHEPOezH1XHX499prJycNU. Retrieved 2007-11-16.
10. ^ Baker, Paul (2004). Fantabulosa: A Dictionary of Polari and Gay Slang. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 140. ISBN 0826473431. http://books.google.com/books?id=T72TJfZoywAC. Retrieved 2008-07-23.
11. ^ Green, Jonathon (2006). Cassell's Dictionary of Slang: A Major New Edition of the Market-leading Dictionary of Slang. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.. p. 485. ISBN 0304366366. http://books.google.com/books?id=5GpLcC4a5fAC. Retrieved 2008-07-23.
12. ^ LesBro: If You're A Boy Who Likes Girls Who Like Girls, Then You Are A Lesbro. And If You're Not, Maybe You Should Be], Joshua David Stein, Details, September 2009.
13. ^ Ordona, Robert (2008). "State of Gay Unions: The "Fag Stag"". Planet Out Inc. http://www.gay.com/news/roundups/package.html?sernum=6315. Retrieved 2008-07-23.
14. ^ Matarazzo, Heather (2005-03-29). "Who you callin' a fag hag?". The Advocate. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1589/is_2005_March_29/ai_n13610077. Retrieved 2008-03-09.
15. ^ Hedges, Chris (May 21, 2003). "Text of the Rockford College graduation speech". Rockford Register Star. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0520-13.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-25.
16. ^ http://[www.thefriendshipblog.com/blog/caution-frenemies-can-be-bad-your-health]
17. ^ Friendship, social support, and health. 2007 Sias, Patricia M; Bartoo, Heidi. In L'Abate, Luciano (Ed). (2007). Low-cost approaches to promote physical and mental health: Theory, research, and practice. (pp. 455-472). xxii, 526 pp. New York, NY, US: Springer Science + Business Media.
18. ^ Social networks and health: It's time for an intervention trial. 2005. Jorm, Anthony F. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. Vol 59(7) Jul 2005, 537-538.
19. ^ Speech to the House of Commons, Hansard (March 1, 1848)

[edit] Further reading

* Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics
* Bech, Henning (1997). When men meet: homosexuality and modernity. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0226040219.
* Bleske, April L, Buss, David M “Can Men and Women Be Just Friends?” In Personal Relationships, 2000, 7, 2, June, 131-151
* Cicero, Marcus Tullius. Laelius de Amicitia
* Conger, John Janeway; Galambos, Nancy (1996). Adolescence and youth: psychological development in a changing world. Longman. ISBN 978-0673992628.
* Hein, David (2004). "Farrer on Friendship, Sainthood, and the Will of God" in Captured by the Crucified: The Practical Theology of Austin Farrer. New York and London: Continuum/T. & T. Clark. p. 119 – 148
* Heyking, John von; Avramenko, Richard (2008). Friendship and Politics: Essays in Political Thought. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
* Kalmijn, Matthijs. “Sex Segregation of Friendship Networks: Individual and Structural Determinants of Having Cross-Sex Friends.” In European Sociological Review, 2002, 18, 1, Mar, 101-117
* Levine, Irene S. (2009). Best Friends Forever: Surviving a Breakup with Your Best Friend. New York:Overlook Press. ISBN 1590200403.
* Lewis, C. S. (1974). The Four Loves. Collins. ISBN 978-0006207993.
* Muraco, Anna. “Heterosexual Evaluations of Hypothetical Friendship Behavior Based on Sex and Sexual Orientation.” In Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 2005, 22, 5, Oct, 587-605
* Reeder, Heidi M. “The Effect of Gender Role Orientation on Same- and Cross-Sex Friendship Formation.” In Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 2003, 49, 3-4, Aug, 143-152
* Strogatz, Steven Henry, "The Calculus of Friendship : what a teacher and a student learned about life while corresponding about math", Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009. ISBN 9780691134932
* Yager, Jan (2002). When Friendship Hurts: How to Deal With Friends Who Betray, Abandon, or Wound You. New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc., Fireside Books.

[edit] External links
Search Wikiquote Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Friendship
Search Wiktionary Look up friendship in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Search Wikimedia Commons Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Friends

* BBC Radio 4 series "In Our Time", on Friendship, 2 March 2006
* Friendship by Paramhansa Yogananda
* Friendship at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
* English translation of Cicero's On Friendship

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friendship"
Categories: Friendship | Gender studies | Sociology
Posted 4/30/10
Emotion
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Camp Worship.JPG
For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation).
"Emotional" redirects here. For other uses, see Emotional (disambiguation).

Emotion is associated with mood, temperament, personality and disposition, and motivation. The English word 'emotion' is derived from the French word émouvoir. This is based on the Latin emovere, where e- (variant of ex-) means 'out' and movere means 'move'.[1] The related term "motivation" is also derived from movere.

No definitive taxonomy of emotions exists, though numerous taxonomies have been proposed. Some categorizations include:

* 'Cognitive' versus 'non-cognitive' emotions
* Instinctual emotions (from the amygdala), versus cognitive emotions (from the prefrontal cortex).
* Basic versus complex: where base emotions lead to more complex ones.
* Categorization based on duration: Some emotions occur over a period of seconds (for example, surprise), whereas others can last years (for example, love).

A related distinction is between the emotion and the results of the emotion, principally behaviors and emotional expressions. People often behave in certain ways as a direct result of their emotional state, such as crying, fighting or fleeing. If one can have the emotion without the corresponding behavior, then we may consider the behavior not to be essential to the emotion. Neuroscientific research suggests there is a "magic quarter second" during which it's possible to catch a thought before it becomes an emotional reaction. In that instant, one can catch a feeling before allowing it to take hold.[2]

The James-Lange theory posits that emotional experience is largely due to the experience of bodily changes. The functionalist approach to emotions (for example, Nico Frijda and Freitas-Magalhaes) holds that emotions have evolved for a particular function, such as to keep the subject safe.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Classification
* 2 Theories
o 2.1 Somatic theories
+ 2.1.1 James-Lange theory
o 2.2 Neurobiological theories
+ 2.2.1 Prefrontal Cortex
+ 2.2.2 Homeostatic Emotion
o 2.3 Cognitive theories
+ 2.3.1 Perceptual theory
+ 2.3.2 Affective Events Theory
+ 2.3.3 Cannon-Bard theory
+ 2.3.4 Two-factor theory
+ 2.3.5 Component process model
* 3 Disciplinary approaches
o 3.1 Evolutionary biology
o 3.2 Sociology
o 3.3 Psychotherapy
o 3.4 Computer science
* 4 Notable theorists
* 5 See also
* 6 References
o 6.1 Notes
o 6.2 Further reading
* 7 External links

[edit] Classification

There basic and complex categories, where some basic emotions can be modified in some way to form complex emotions (for example,Paul Ekman). In one model, the complex emotions could arise from cultural conditioning or association combined with the basic emotions. Alternatively, analogous to the way primary colors combine, primary emotions could blend to form the full spectrum of human emotional experience. For example interpersonal anger and disgust could blend to form contempt.[citation needed]

Robert Plutchik proposed a three-dimensional "circumplex model" which describes the relations among emotions. This model is similar to a color wheel. The vertical dimension represents intensity, and the circle represents degrees of similarity among the emotions. He posited eight primary emotion dimensions arranged as four pairs of opposites. Some have also argued for the existence of meta-emotions which are emotions about emotions.[citation needed]

Another important means of distinguishing emotions concerns their occurrence in time. Some emotions occur over a period of seconds (for example, surprise), whereas others can last years (for example, love). The latter could be regarded as a long term tendency to have an emotion regarding a certain object rather than an emotion proper (though this is disputed). A distinction is then made between emotion episodes and emotional dispositions. Dispositions are also comparable to character traits, where someone may be said to be generally disposed to experience certain emotions, though about different objects. For example an irritable person is generally disposed to feel irritation more easily or quickly than others do. Finally, some theorists (for example, Klaus Scherer, 2005) place emotions within a more general category of 'affective states' where affective states can also include emotion-related phenomena such as pleasure and pain, motivational states (for example, hunger or curiosity), moods, dispositions and traits.[citation needed]

The neural correlates of hate have been investigated with an fMRI procedure. In this experiment, people had their brains scanned while viewing pictures of people they hated. The results showed increased activity in the medial frontal gyrus, right putamen, bilaterally in the premotor cortex, in the frontal pole, and bilaterally in the medial insula of the human brain. The researchers concluded that there is a distinct pattern of brain activity that occurs when people are experiencing hatred.
Emotions

Affection
Anger
Annoyance
Angst
Apathy
Anxiety
Awe
Boredom
Compassion
Contempt
Curiosity
Depression
Desire
Despair
Disappointment
Disgust
Ecstasy
Empathy
Envy
Embarrassment
Euphoria
Fear
Frustration
Gratitude
Grief
Guilt
Happiness
Hatred
Hope
Horror
Hostility
Hysteria
Jealousy
Loathing
Love
Lust
Misery
Pity
Pride
Rage
Regret
Remorse
Sadness
Shame
Suffering
Surprise
Wonder
Worry
v • d • e
[edit] Theories

Theories about emotions stretch back at least as far as the Ancient Greek Stoics, as well as Plato and Aristotle. We also see sophisticated theories in the works of philosophers such as René Descartes[3], Baruch Spinoza[4] and David Hume. Later theories of emotions tend to be informed by advances in empirical research. Often theories are not mutually exclusive and many researchers incorporate multiple perspectives in their work.
[edit] Somatic theories

Somatic theories of emotion claim that bodily responses rather than judgements are essential to emotions. The first modern version of such theories comes from William James in the 1880s. The theory lost favour in the 20th century, but has regained popularity more recently due largely to theorists such as John Cacioppo, António Damásio, Joseph E. LeDoux and Robert Zajonc who are able to appeal to neurological evidence.
[edit] James-Lange theory
Main article: James-Lange theory

William James, in the article 'What is an Emotion?' (Mind, 9, 1884: 188-205), argued that emotional experience is largely due to the experience of bodily changes. The Danish psychologist Carl Lange also proposed a similar theory at around the same time, so this position is known as the James-Lange theory. This theory and its derivatives state that a changed situation leads to a changed bodily state. As James says "the perception of bodily changes as they occur is the emotion." James further claims that "we feel sad because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble, and neither we cry, strike, nor tremble because we are sorry, angry, or fearful, as the case may be."[5]

This theory is supported by experiments in which by manipulating the bodily state, a desired emotion is induced.[6] Such experiments also have therapeutic implications (for example, in laughter therapy, dance therapy). The James-Lange theory is often misunderstood because it seems counter-intuitive. Most people believe that emotions give rise to emotion-specific actions: i.e. "I'm crying because I'm sad", or "I ran away because I was scared". The James-Lange theory, conversely, asserts that first we react to a situation (running away and crying happen before the emotion), and then we interpret our actions into an emotional response. In this way, emotions serve to explain and organize our own actions to us.

The James-Lange theory has now been all but abandoned by most scholars.[7]

Tim Dalgleish (2004)[8] states the following:


The James-Lang theory has remained influential. Its main contribution is the emphasis it places on the embodiment of emotions, especially the argument that changes in the bodily concomitants of emotions can alter their experienced intensity. Most contemporary neuroscientists would endorse a modified James-Lang view in which bodily feedback modulates the experience of emotion." (p. 583)



The issue with James-Lang theory is that of causation (bodily states causing emotions and being a priori), not that of the bodily influences on emotional experience (which I would argue is still quite prevalent today in biofeedback studies and embodiment theory).
[edit] Neurobiological theories

Based on discoveries made through neural mapping of the limbic system, the neurobiological explanation of human emotion is that emotion is a pleasant or unpleasant mental state organized in the limbic system of the mammalian brain. If distinguished from reactive responses of reptiles, emotions would then be mammalian elaborations of general vertebrate arousal patterns, in which neurochemicals (for example, dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin) step-up or step-down the brain's activity level, as visible in body movements, gestures, and postures.

For example, the emotion of love is proposed to be the expression of paleocircuits of the mammalian brain (specifically, modules of the cingulate gyrus) which facilitate the care, feeding, and grooming of offspring. Paleocircuits are neural platforms for bodily expression configured millions of years before the advent of cortical circuits for speech. They consist of pre-configured pathways or networks of nerve cells in the forebrain, brain stem and spinal cord. They evolved prior to the earliest mammalian ancestors, as far back as the jawless fish, to control motor function.

Presumably, before the mammalian brain, animal life was automatic, preconscious, and predictable. The motor centers of reptiles react to sensory cues of vision, sound, touch, chemical, gravity, and motion with pre-set body movements and programmed postures. With the arrival of night-active mammals, circa 180 million years ago, smell replaced vision as the dominant sense, and a different way of responding arose from the olfactory sense, which is proposed to have developed into mammalian emotion and emotional memory. In the Jurassic Period, the mammalian brain invested heavily in olfaction to succeed at night as reptiles slept—one explanation for why olfactory lobes in mammalian brains are proportionally larger than in the reptiles. These odor pathways gradually formed the neural blueprint for what was later to become our limbic brain.

Emotions are thought to be related to activity in brain areas that direct our attention, motivate our behavior, and determine the significance of what is going on around us. Pioneering work by Broca (1878), Papez (1937), and MacLean (1952) suggested that emotion is related to a group of structures in the center of the brain called the limbic system, which includes the hypothalamus, cingulate cortex, hippocampi, and other structures. More recent research has shown that some of these limbic structures are not as directly related to emotion as others are, while some non-limbic structures have been found to be of greater emotional relevance.
[edit] Prefrontal Cortex

There is ample evidence that the left prefrontal cortex is activated by stimuli that cause positive approach.[9] If attractive stimuli can selectively activate a region of the brain, then logically the converse should hold, that selective activation of that region of the brain should cause a stimulus to be judged more positively. This was demonstrated for moderately attractive visual stimuli[10] and replicated and extended to include negative stimuli.[11]

Two neurobiological models of emotion in the prefrontal cortex made opposing predictions. The Valence Model predicted that anger, a negative emotion, would activate the right prefrontal cortex. The Direction Model predicted that anger, an approach emotion, would activate the left prefrontal cortex. The second model was supported.[12]

This still left open the question of whether the opposite of approach in the prefrontal cortex is better described as moving away (Direction Model), as unmoving but with strength and resistance (Movement Model), or as unmoving with passive yielding (Action Tendency Model). Support for the Action Tendency Model (passivity related to right prefrontal activity) comes from research on shyness[13] and research on behavioral inhibition.[14] Research that tested the competing hypotheses generated by all four models also supported the Action Tendency Model.[15][16]
[edit] Homeostatic Emotion

Another neurological approach, described by Bud Craig in 2003, distinguishes between two classes of emotion. "Classical emotions" include lust, anger and fear, and they are feelings evoked by environmental stimuli, which motivate us (in these examples, respectively, to copulate/fight/flee). "Homeostatic emotions" are feelings evoked by internal body states, which modulate our behavior. Thirst, hunger, feeling hot or cold (core temperature), feeling sleep deprived, salt hunger and air hunger are all examples of homeostatic emotion; each is a signal from a body system saying "Things aren't right down here. Drink/eat/move into the shade/put on something warm/sleep/lick salty rocks/breathe." We begin to feel a homeostatic emotion when one of these systems drifts out of balance, and the feeling prompts us to do what is necessary to restore that system to balance. Pain is a homeostatic emotion telling us "Things aren't right here. Withdraw and protect."[17][18]
[edit] Cognitive theories

There are some theories on emotions arguing that cognitive activity in the form of judgements, evaluations, or thoughts is necessary in order for an emotion to occur. This, argued by Richard Lazarus, is necessary to capture the fact that emotions are about something or have intentionality. Such cognitive activity may be conscious or unconscious and may or may not take the form of conceptual processing. An influential theory here is that of Lazarus. A prominent philosophical exponent is Robert C. Solomon (for example, The Passions, Emotions and the Meaning of Life, 1993). The theory proposed by Nico Frijda where appraisal leads to action tendencies is another example. It has also been suggested that emotions (affect heuristics, feelings and gut-feeling reactions) are often used as shortcuts to process information and influence behaviour.[19]
[edit] Perceptual theory

A recent hybrid of the somatic and cognitive theories of emotion is the perceptual theory. This theory is neo-Jamesian in arguing that bodily responses are central to emotions, yet it emphasises the meaningfulness of emotions or the idea that emotions are about something, as is recognised by cognitive theories. The novel claim of this theory is that conceptually based cognition is unnecessary for such meaning. Rather the bodily changes themselves perceive the meaningful content of the emotion because of being causally triggered by certain situations. In this respect, emotions are held to be analogous to faculties such as vision or touch, which provide information about the relation between the subject and the world in various ways. A sophisticated defense of this view is found in philosopher Jesse Prinz's book Gut Reactions and psychologist James Laird's book Feelings.
[edit] Affective Events Theory

This a communication-based theory developed by Howard M. Weiss and Russell Cropanzano (1996), that looks at the causes, structures, and consequences of emotional experience (especially in work contexts). This theory suggests that emotions are influenced and caused by events which in turn influence attitudes and behaviors. This theoretical frame also emphasizes time in that human beings experience what they call emotion episodes—a "series of emotional states extended over time and organized around an underlying theme". This theory has been utilized by numerous researchers to better understand emotion from a communicative lens, and was reviewed further by Howard M. Weiss and Daniel J. Beal in their article, Reflections on Affective Events Theory published in Research on Emotion in Organizations in 2005.
[edit] Cannon-Bard theory

In the Cannon-Bard theory, Walter Bradford Cannon argued against the dominance of the James-Lange theory regarding the physiological aspects of emotions in the second edition of Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage. Where James argued that emotional behaviour often precedes or defines the emotion, Cannon and Bard argued that the emotion arises first and then stimulates typical behaviour.
[edit] Two-factor theory

Another cognitive theory is the Singer-Schachter theory. This is based on experiments purportedly showing that subjects can have different emotional reactions despite being placed into the same physiological state with an injection of adrenaline. Subjects were observed to express either anger or amusement depending on whether another person in the situation displayed that emotion. Hence, the combination of the appraisal of the situation (cognitive) and the participants' reception of adrenaline or a placebo together determined the response. This experiment has been criticized in Jesse Prinz's (2004) Gut Reactions.
[edit] Component process model

A recent version of the cognitive theory regards emotions more broadly as the synchronization of many different bodily and cognitive components. Emotions are identified with the overall process whereby low-level cognitive appraisals, in particular the processing of relevance, trigger bodily reactions, behaviors, feelings, and actions.
[edit] Disciplinary approaches

Many different disciplines have produced work on the emotions. Human sciences study the role of emotions in mental processes, disorders, and neural mechanisms. In psychiatry, emotions are examined as part of the discipline's study and treatment of mental disorders in humans. Psychology examines emotions from a scientific perspective by treating them as mental processes and behavior and they explore the underlying physiological and neurological processes. In neuroscience sub-fields such as social neuroscience and affective neuroscience, scientists study the neural mechanisms of emotion by combining neuroscience with the psychological study of personality, emotion, and mood. In linguistics, the expression of emotion may change to the meaning of sounds. In education, the role of emotions in relation to learning are examined.

Social sciences often examine emotion for the role that it plays in human culture and social interactions. In sociology, emotions are examined for the role they play in human society, social patterns and interactions, and culture. In anthropology, the study of humanity, scholars use ethnography to undertake contextual analyses and cross-cultural comparisons of a range of human activities; some anthropology studies examine the role of emotions in human activities. In the field of communication sciences, critical organizational scholars have examined the role of emotions in organizations, from the perspectives of managers, employees, and even customers. A focus on emotions in organizations can be credited to Arlie Russell Hochschild's concept of emotional labor. The University of Queensland hosts EmoNet,[20] an email distribution list representing a network of academics that facilitates scholarly discussion of all matters relating to the study of emotion in organizational settings. The list was established in January, 1997 and has over 700 members from across the globe.

In economics, the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, emotions are analyzed in some sub-fields of microeconomics, in order to assess the role of emotions on purchase decision-making and risk perception. In criminology, a social science approach to the study of crime, scholars often draw on behavioral sciences, sociology, and psychology; emotions are examined in criminology issues such as anomie theory and studies of "toughness", aggressive behavior, and hooliganism. In law, which underpins civil obedience, politics, economics and society, evidence about people's emotions is often raised in tort law claims for compensation and in criminal law prosecutions against alleged lawbreakers (as evidence of the defendant's state of mind during trials, sentencing, and parole hearings). In political science, emotions are examined in a number of sub-fields, such as the analysis of voter decision-making.

In philosophy, emotions are studied in sub-fields such as ethics, the philosophy of art (for example, sensory-emotional values, and matters of taste and sentimentality), and the philosophy of music (see also Music and emotion). In history, scholars examine documents and other sources to interpret and analyze past activities; speculation on the emotional state of the authors of historical documents is one of the tools of interpretation. In literature and film-making, the expression of emotion is the cornerstone of genres such as drama, melodrama, and romance. In communication studies, scholars study the role that emotion plays in the dissemination of ideas and messages. Emotion is also studied in non-human animals in ethology, a branch of zoology which focuses on the scientific study of animal behavior. Ethology is a combination of laboratory and field science, with strong ties to ecology and evolution. Ethologists often study one type of behavior (for example, aggression) in a number of unrelated animals.
Illustration from Charles Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals.
[edit] Evolutionary biology
Main article: Evolution of emotion

Perspectives on emotions from evolution theory were initiated in the late 19th century with Charles Darwin's book The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals.[21] Darwin's original thesis was that emotions evolved via natural selection and therefore have cross-culturally universal counterparts. Furthermore, animals undergo emotions comparable to our own (see emotion in animals). Evidence of universality in the human case has been provided by Paul Ekman's seminal research on facial expression. Other research in this area focuses on physical displays of emotion including body language of animals and humans (see affect display). The increased potential in neuroimaging has also allowed investigation into evolutionarily ancient parts of the brain. Important neurological advances were made from these perspectives in the 1990s by, for example, Joseph E. LeDoux and António Damásio.

American evolutionary biologist Robert Trivers argues that moral emotions are based on the principle of reciprocal altruism. The notion of group selection is of particular relevance. This theory posits the different emotions have different reciprocal effects. Sympathy prompts a person to offer the first favor, particularly to someone in need for whom the help would go the furthest. Anger protects a person against cheaters who accept a favor without reciprocating, by making him want to punish the ingrate or sever the relationship. Gratitude impels a beneficiary to reward those who helped him in the past. Finally, guilt prompts a cheater who is in danger of being found out, by making them want to repair the relationship by redressing the misdeed. As well, guilty feelings encourage a cheater who has been caught to advertise or promise that he will behave better in the future.
[edit] Sociology
Main article: Sociology of emotions

We try to regulate our emotions to fit in with the norms of the situation, based on many—sometimes conflicting—demands upon us which originate from various entities studied by sociology on a micro level—such as social roles and 'feeling rules' the everyday social interactions and situations are shaped by—and, on a macro level, by social institutions, discourses, ideologies etc. For example, (post-)modern marriage is, on one hand, based on the emotion of love and on the other hand the very emotion is to be worked on and regulated by it. The sociology of emotions also focuses on general attitude changes in a population. Emotional appeals are commonly found in advertising, health campaigns and political messages. Recent examples include no-smoking health campaigns and political campaign advertising emphasizing the fear of terrorism.
[edit] Psychotherapy

Depending on the particular school's general emphasis either on cognitive components of emotion, physical energy discharging, or on symbolic movement and facial expression components of emotion,[22] different schools of psychotherapy approach human emotions differently. While, for example, the school of Re-evaluation Counseling proposes that distressing emotions are to be relieved by "discharging" them—hence crying, laughing, sweating, shaking, and trembling;[23] other more cognitively oriented schools approach them via their cognitive components, such as rational emotive behavior therapy. Yet others approach emotions via symbolic movement and facial expression components (like in contemporary Gestalt therapy.[24])
[edit] Computer science
Main article: Affective computing

In the 2000s, research in computer science, engineering, psychology and neuroscience has been aimed at developing devices that recognize human affect display and model emotions.[25] In computer science, affective computing is a branch of the study and development of artificial intelligence that deals with the design of systems and devices that can recognize, interpret, and process human emotions. It is an interdisciplinary field spanning computer sciences, psychology, and cognitive science.[26] While the origins of the field may be traced as far back as to early philosophical enquiries into emotion,[27] the more modern branch of computer science originated with Rosalind Picard's 1995 paper[28] on affective computing.[29][30] Detecting emotional information begins with passive sensors which capture data about the user's physical state or behavior without interpreting the input. The data gathered is analogous to the cues humans use to perceive emotions in others. Another area within affective computing is the design of computational devices proposed to exhibit either innate emotional capabilities or that are capable of convincingly simulating emotions. Emotional speech processing recognizes the user's emotional state by analyzing speech patterns. The detection and processing of facial expression or body gestures is achieved through detectors and sensors.
[edit] Notable theorists

In the late nineteenth century, the most influential theorists were William James (1842 – 1910) and Carl Lange (1834 - 1900). James was an American psychologist and philosopher who wrote about educational psychology, psychology of religious experience/mysticism, and the philosophy of pragmatism. Lange was a Danish physician and psychologist. Working independently, they developed the James-Lange theory, a hypothesis on the origin and nature of emotions. The theory states that within human beings, as a response to experiences in the world, the autonomic nervous system creates physiological events such as muscular tension, a rise in heart rate, perspiration, and dryness of the mouth. Emotions, then, are feelings which come about as a result of these physiological changes, rather than being their cause.

Some of the most influential theorists on emotion from the twentieth century have died in the last decade. They include Magda B. Arnold (1903-2002), an American psychologist who developed the appraisal theory of emotions; Richard Lazarus (1922-2002), an American psychologist who specialized in emotion and stress, especially in relation to cognition; Herbert Simon (1916-2001), who included emotions into decision making and artificial intelligence; Robert Plutchik (1928-2006), an American psychologist who developed a psychoevolutionary theory of emotion; Robert Zajonc (1923-2008) a Polish-American social psychologist who specialized in social and cognitive processes such as social facilitation. In addition, an American philosopher, Robert C. Solomon (1942 – 2007), contributed to the theories on the philosophy of emotions with books such as What Is An Emotion?: Classic and Contemporary Readings (Oxford, 2003).

Influential theorists who are still active include psychologists, neurologists, and philosophers including:

* Lisa Feldman Barrett - Social philosopher and psychologist specializing in affective science and human emotion.
* John Cacioppo - from the University of Chicago, founding father with Gary Berntson of social neuroscience.
* António Damásio (1944- ) - Portuguese behavioral neurologist and neuroscientist who works in the US
* Richard Davidson (1951- ) - American psychologist and neuroscientist; pioneer in affective neuroscience.
* Paul Ekman (1934- ) - Psychologist specializing in study of emotions and their relation to facial expressions
* Barbara Fredrickson - Social psychologist who specializes in emotions and positive psychology.
* Nico Frijda (1927- ) - Dutch psychologist who specializes in human emotions, especially facial expressions
* Peter Goldie - British philosopher who specializes in ethics, aesthetics, emotion, mood and character
* Arlie Russell Hochschild (1940- ) - American sociologist whose central contribution was in forging a link between the subcutaneous flow of emotion in social life and the larger trends set loose by modern capitalism within organizations.
* Joseph E. LeDoux (1949- ) - American neuroscientist who studies the biological underpinnings of memory and emotion, especially the mechanisms of fear
* Jaak Panksepp 1943- ) - Estonian-born American psychologist, psychobiologist and neuroscientist; pioneer in affective neuroscience.
* Jesse Prinz - American philosopher who specializes in emotion, moral psychology, aesthetics and consciousness
* Klaus Scherer (1943- ) - Swiss psychologist and director of the Swiss Center for Affective Sciences in Geneva; he specializes in the psychology of emotion
* Ronald de Sousa (1940- ) - English-Canadian philosopher who specializes in the philosophy of emotions, philosophy of mind and philosophy of biology.

[edit] See also

* Affect measures
* Affect (psychology)
* Affective neuroscience
* Affective science
* Emotion in animals
* Emotions and culture



* Emotion and memory
* Emotional expression
* Empathy
* Feeling
* List of emotions
* Mood (psychology)



* Psychological immune system
* Sex and emotion
* Sociology of emotions
* Social neuroscience
* Somatic markers hypothesis

Search Wikiversity Wikiversity has learning materials about Emotion
[edit] References
[edit] Notes

1. ^ Emotional Competency discussion of emotion
2. ^ "Emotional Alchemy: How the Mind Can Heal the Heart by Tara-Bennett Goleman"
3. ^ See Philip Fisher (1999) Wonder, The Rainbow and the Aesthetics of Rare Experiences for an introduction
4. ^ See for instance Antonio Damasio (2005) Looking for Spinoza.
5. ^ James, William, 1884. “What is an Emotion?” Mind, 9: 188–205.
6. ^ Laird, James, Feelings: the Perception of Self, Oxford University Press
7. ^ jstor.com, Cornelius L. Golightly, The James-Lange Theory: A Logical Post-Mortem.
8. ^ Dalgleish, T. (2004). The emotional brain. Nature: Perspectives, 5, 582-89.
9. ^ Kringelbach, M. L., O’Doherty, J. O., Rolls, E. T., & Andrews, C. (2003). Activation of the human orbitofrontal cortex to a liquid food stimulus is correlated with its subjective pleasantness. Cerebral Cortex, 13, 1064-1071.
10. ^ Drake, R. A. (1987). Effects of gaze manipulation on aesthetic judgments: Hemisphere priming of affect. Acta Psychologica, 65, 91-99.
11. ^ Merckelbach, H., & van Oppen, P. (1989). Effects of gaze manipulation on subjective evaluation of neutral and phobia-relevant stimuli: A comment on Drake's (1987) 'Effects of gaze manipulation on aesthetic judgments: Hemisphere priming of affect.' Acta Psychologica, 70, 147-151.
12. ^ Harmon-Jones, E., Vaughn-Scott, K., Mohr, S., Sigelman, J., & Harmon-Jones, C. (2004). The effect of manipulated sympathy and anger on left and right frontal cortical activity. Emotion, 4, 95-101.
13. ^ Schmidt, L. A. (1999). Frontal brain electrical activity in shyness and sociability. Psychological Science, 10, 316-320.
14. ^ Garavan, H., Ross, T. J., & Stein, E. A. (1999). Right hemispheric dominance of inhibitory control: An event-related functional MRI study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 96, 8301-8306.
15. ^ Drake, R. A., & Myers, L. R. (2006). Visual attention, emotion, and action tendency: Feeling active or passive. Cognition and Emotion, 20, 608-622.
16. ^ Wacker, J., Chavanon, M.-L., Leue, A., & Stemmler, G. (2008). Is running away right? The behavioral activation–behavioral inhibition model of anterior asymmetry. Emotion, 8, 232-249.
17. ^ Craig, A. D. (Bud) (2008). "Interoception and emotion: A neuroanatomical perspective". in Lewis, M.; Haviland-Jones, J. M.; Feldman Barrett, L.. Handbook of Emotion (3 ed.). New York: The Guildford Press. pp. 272–288. ISBN 978-1-59385-650-2. http://books.google.com.au/books?id=DFK1QwlrOUAC&pg=PA272&lpg=PA272&dq=%22bud+craig%22+handbook+of+emotion&source=bl&ots=3ljxPnCCaC&sig=zUq3VSW-JgnOPN_684nDvTOLQBI&hl=en&ei=hGSjSu_2CceCkQX7pdiBBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
18. ^ Craig, A. D. (Bud) (2003). "Interoception: The sense of the physiological condition of the body". Current Opinion in Neurobiology 13: 500–505. doi:10.1016/S0959-4388(03)00090-4. PMID 12965300. http://www.jsmf.org/meetings/2007/oct-nov/CONB%20Craig%202003.pdf.
19. ^ see the Heuristic-Systematic Model, or HSM, (Chaiken, Liberman, & Eagly, 1989) under attitude change. Also see the index entry for "Emotion" in "Beyond Rationality: The Search for Wisdom in a Troubled Time" by Kenneth R. Hammond and in "Fooled by Randomness: The Hidden Role of Chance in Life and in the Markets" by Nassim Nicholas Taleb.
20. ^ EmoNet
21. ^ Darwin, Charles (1872). The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals. Note: This book was originally published in 1872, but has been reprinted many times thereafter by different publishers
22. ^ Freitas-Magalhães, A., & Castro, E. (2009). Facial Expression: The effect of the smile in the Treatment of Depression. Empirical Study with Portuguese Subjects. In A. Freitas-Magalhães (Ed.), Emotional Expression: The Brain and The Face (pp. 127-140). Porto: University Fernando Pessoa Press. ISBN 978-989-643-034-4
23. ^ Counseling recovery processes - RC website
24. ^ On Emotion - an article from Manchester Gestalt Centre website
25. ^ Fellous, Armony & LeDoux, 2002
26. ^ Tao, Jianhua; Tieniu Tan (2005). "LNCS volume = 3784". Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction. Springer. pp. 981–995. doi:10.1007/11573548.
27. ^ James, William (1884). "What is Emotion". Mind 9: 188–205. Cited by Tao and Tan.
28. ^ "Affective Computing" MIT Technical Report #321 (Abstract), 1995
29. ^ Kleine-Cosack, Christian (October 2006). "Recognition and Simulation of Emotions" (PDF). http://ls12-www.cs.tu-dortmund.de//~fink/lectures/SS06/human-robot-interaction/Emotion-RecognitionAndSimulation.pdf. Retrieved May 13, 2008. "The introduction of emotion to computer science was done by Pickard (sic) who created the field of affective computing."
30. ^ Diamond, David (December 2003). "The Love Machine; Building computers that care.". Wired. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/11.12/love.html. Retrieved May 13, 2008. "Rosalind Picard, a genial MIT professor, is the field's godmother; her 1997 book, Affective Computing, triggered an explosion of interest in the emotional side of computers and their users."

[edit] Further reading

* Cornelius, R. (1996). The science of emotion. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
* Freitas-Magalhães, A. (Ed.). (2009). Emotional Expression: The Brain and The Face. Porto: University Fernando Pessoa Press. ISBN 978-989-643-034-4.
* Freitas-Magalhães, A. (2007).The Psychology of Emotions: The Allure of Human Face. Oporto: University Fernando Pessoa Press.
* Ekman, P. (1999). "Basic Emotions". In: T. Dalgleish and M. Power (Eds.). Handbook of Cognition and Emotion. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Sussex, UK:.
* Frijda, N. H. (1986). The Emotions. Maison des Sciences de l'Homme and Cambridge University Press. [1]
* Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feelings. Berkeley: University of California Press.
* LeDoux, J. E. (1986). The neurobiology of emotion. Chap. 15 in J E. LeDoux & W. Hirst (Eds.) Mind and Brain: dialogues in cognitive neuroscience. New York: Cambridge.
* Plutchik, R. (1980). A general psychoevolutionary theory of emotion. In R. Plutchik & H. Kellerman (Eds.), Emotion: Theory, research, and experience: Vol. 1. Theories of emotion (pp. 3–33). New York: Academic.
* Scherer, K. (2005). What are emotions and how can they be measured? Social Science Information Vol. 44, No. 4: 695-729.
* Solomon, R. (1993). The Passions: Emotions and the Meaning of Life. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing.
* Wikibook Cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience

[edit] External links
Search Wiktionary Look up emotion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

* Facial Emotion Expression Lab
* CNX.ORG: The Psychology of Emotions, Feelings and Thoughts (free online book)
* Queen Mary Centre for the History of the Emotions
* Humaine Emotion-Research.net: The Humaine Portal: Research on Emotions and Human-Machine Interaction
* PhilosophyofMind.net: Philosophy of Emotions portal
* Swiss Center for Affective Sciences
* The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Theories of Emotion
* The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Emotion
* University of Arizona: Salk Institute: Emotion Home Page
* Art and Emotion
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