Post Reply [LAG.] Spanish Level 2
Posted 8/30/10



Regular Verbs: Part II

Here's the complete list of Spanish subject pronouns.

Singular
yo

usted
él
ella
Plural
nosotros/as
vosotros/as
ustedes
ellos
ellas



To conjugate -ar verbs, drop the ending and add:

-o
-as
-a
-amos
-áis
-an



To conjugate -er verbs, drop the ending and add:

-o
-es
-e
-emos
-éis
-en



To conjugate -ir verbs, drop the ending and add:

-o
-es
-e
-imos
-ís
-en



You will benefit greatly by quickly memorizing the three model verbs.

hablar

yo hablo
tú hablas
él, ella, Ud. habla
nosotros/as hablamos
vosotros/as habláis
ellos, ellas, Uds. hablan

comer

yo como
tú comes
él, ella, Ud. come
nosotros/as comemos
vosotros/as coméis
ellos, ellas, Uds. comen

vivir

yo vivo
tú vives
él, ella, Ud. vive
nosotros/as vivimos
vosotros/as vivís
ellos, ellas, Uds. viven

Note: The verb forms are the same for él, ella and Ud. as are the verb forms for ellos, ellas and Uds.


In Spanish the subject pronouns are not always required. This is because the verb endings can indicate who is performing the action.

Hablo español. (Yo is not necessary.)
I speak Spanish.

Comemos carne. (Nosotros is not necessary.)
We eat meat.

Vives en México. (Tú is not necessary.)
You live in Mexico.



Subject pronouns are often used for clarification. For example, the verb form habla is ambiguous.

Ud. habla
él habla
ella habla

Therefore, to distinguish between "you speak," "he speaks," and "she speaks," it may be necessary to use the subject pronoun. Often, the conversation implies the subject of the verb. In such cases the subject pronoun may be omitted.


Subject pronouns are often used for emphasis.

Ella habla español y yo hablo inglés.

Here there is no ambiguity with respect to hablo. The subject pronoun is merely adding emphasis:

She speaks Spanish and I speak English.



Another example of using subject pronouns for emphasis.

Yo como pan y tú comes arroz.

Once again there is no ambiguity. The pronouns emphasize the contrast.

I eat bread and you eat rice.



It is possible to use two verbs in a row. Just like in English, the first verb is conjugated, while the second verb remains in the infinitive form.

Necesito hablar con Alfredo.
I need to speak with Alfredo.
(necesitar, hablar)

Necesito + hablar + con Alfredo.
I need + to speak + with Alfredo.



Another example of two verbs used together:

Deseas vivir en España.
You wish to live in Spain.
(desear, vivir)

Deseas + vivir + en España.
You wish + to live + in Spain.



Hopefully, you have taken our advice and have been creating a special collection of verb flashcards. If not, it's not too late to start. Here is the entire list of cards to this point:
Verb Flashcards

hay
there is, there are

Present Indicative

I speak
I do speak
I am speaking

hablar (to speak)

hablo
hablas
habla

hablamos
habláis

hablan

comer (to eat)

como
comes
come

comemos
coméis

comen

vivir (to live)

vivo
vives
vive

vivimos
vivís

viven



Common Regular -ar Verbs

alquilar – to rent
entrar (en) – to enter (into)
necesitar – to need
amar – to love
enviar – to send
olvidar – to forget
andar – to walk
escuchar – to listen to
pagar – to pay for
ayudar – to help
esperar – to hope, to wait for
practicar – to practice
bailar – to dance
estudiar – to study
preguntar – to ask
buscar – to look for
firmar – to sign
preparar – to prepare
caminar – to walk
ganar – to win, earn
regresar – to return
cantar – to sing
gastar – to spend money
saludar – to greet
cocinar – to cook
hablar – to speak, to talk
tocar – to touch, to play an instrument
comprar – to buy
lavar – to wash
tomar – to take, to drink
contestar – to answer
llegar – to arrive
trabajar – to work
dejar – to allow, to leave
llevar – to wear, to carry
viajar – to travel
desear – to desire
mandar – to order
visitar – to visit
enseñar – to teach
mirar – to watch, to look at

Common Regular -er Verbs

aprender – to learn
creer – to believe
poseer – to possess, to own
beber – to drink
deber – to have to, to owe
prometer – to promise
comer – to eat
esconder – to hide
romper – to break
comprender – to understand
leer – to read
temer – to fear
correr – to run
meter en – to put into
vender – to sell

Common Regular -ir Verbs

abrir – to open
descubrir – to discover
permitir – to permit
admitir – to admit
discutir – to discuss
recibir – to receive
asistir a – to attend
escribir – to write
subir – to climb, to go up
cubrir – to cover
existir – to exist
sufrir – to suffer
decidir – to decide
omitir – to omit
unir – to unite
describir – to describe
partir – to divide
vivir – to live

Adjectives: Part II




Many adjectives of nationality end in -o. These adjectives follow the same rules as other adjectives ending in -o. That is, they have four forms.

el muchacho mexicano
la muchacha mexicana

los muchachos mexicanos
las muchachas mexicanas



Many other adjectives of nationality end in a consonant. These adjectives do not follow the same rules as other adjectives ending in a consonant, rather, they have a distinct feminine form ending in -a.

el muchacho español
la muchacha española

los muchachos españoles
las muchachas españolas



There is another group of adjectives that does not follow the normal rules. Adjectives ending in -or, -án, -ón, or -ín also have a feminine form.

el chico hablador
la chica habladora

los chicos habladores
las chicas habladoras

el hombre trabajador
la mujer trabajadora

los hombres trabajadores
las mujeres trabajadoras

Note: Adjectives ending in "-erior" do not have a feminine form.


Adjectives that are descriptive usually follow the noun they describe.

el chico alto
la chica alta
los libros pequeños
las plumas rojas



Adjectives of quantity almost always come before the noun. Such adjectives tell how much or how many.

pocos libros
mucha energía
mucho trabajo
pocas casas



Sometimes, a descriptive adjective can precede the noun. If the adjective is descriptive, but speaks of a quality that is inherent and usually taken for granted, the adjective comes first.

la blanca nieve
the white snow (snow is inherently white)

los altos picos
the tall peaks (peaks are inherently tall)



Let's review the last two lessons.

Adjectives that end in -o have four forms.

alto
alta
altos
altas

Adjectives of nationality ending in -o are no different from other such adjectives.

guatemalteco
guatemalteca
guatemaltecos
guatemaltecas

Adjectives that end in -e have two forms.

inteligente
inteligentes

Most adjectives ending with a consonant have two forms.

popular
populares

Adjectives of nationality ending in a consonant have four forms.

español
española
españoles
españolas

Adjectives ending in -or, -án, -ón, or -ín have four forms.

hablador
habladora
habladores
habladoras

Adjectives that are descriptive usually follow the noun they describe.

casa blanca
chica alta

When an adjective speaks of a quality that is inherent and usually taken for granted, the adjective precedes the noun.

la blanca nieve
los altos picos

Adjectives of quantity usually come before the noun.

pocos libros
muchos libros
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