this is about sort like ao no exorcist dictionary thread. so if you don't understand something in read or watch ao no exorcist. just ask us and we could help as we can. so let's start! xD
you must have been read the plot of ao no exorcist right? okay so here's the fact about Assiah and Gehenna. 8D
TWO WORLD DIMENSION
also known as Olam Asiyah, עולם עשיה in Hebrew, literally the World of Action) is the last of the four spiritual worlds of the Kabbalah—Atziluth, Beri'ah, Yetzirah, 'Asiyah—based on the passage in Isaiah 43:7. According to the Maseket Aẓilut, it is the region where the Ofanim rule and where they promote the hearing of prayers, support human endeavor, and combat evil. Their ruler is Sandalphon. According to the system of the later Palestinian Kabbalah, 'Asiyah is the lowest of the spiritual worlds containing the Ten Heavens and the whole system of mundane Creation. The light of the Sefirot emanates from these Ten Heavens, which are called the "Ten Sefirot of 'Asiyah"; and through them spirituality and piety are imparted to the realm of matter—the seat of the dark and impure powers.
Representing purely material existence, it is known as the World of Action, the World of Effects or the World of Making. In western occultism it is associated with the Tarot card suit known as Pentacles (or Coins or Disks, the terminology varies according to the deck). The world of Yetzirah precedes it.
are terms derived from a place outside ancient Jerusalem known in the Hebrew Bible as the Valley of the Son of Hinnom (Hebrew: גֵיא בֶן־הִנֹּם or גיא בן-הינום); one of the two principal valleys surrounding the Old City. In the Hebrew Bible, the site was initially where apostate Israelites and followers of various Ba'als and Caananite gods, including Moloch, sacrificed their children by fire (2 Chr. 28:3, 33:6; Jer. 7:31, 19:2-6). In both Rabbinical Jewish and Early Christian writing, Gehenna was a destination of the wicked. This is different from the more neutral Sheol/Hades, the abode of the dead, though the King James version of the Bible traditionally translates both with the Anglo-Saxon word Hell.
English "Gehenna" represents the Greek Geenna (γέεννα) found in the New Testament, a phonetic transcription of Aramaic Gēhannā (ܓܗܢܐ), equivalent to the Hebrew Ge Hinnom, literally "Valley of Hinnom". This was known in the Old Testament as Gai Ben-Hinnom, literally the "Valley of the son of Hinnom", and in the Talmud as גהנם Gehinnam or גהנום Gehinnom. In the Qur'an, Jahannam (جهنم) is a place of torment for sinners or the Islamic equivalent of Hell.
so we can called it both of assiah and gehenna are from tribe of Islamic and Christian (most Catholic for sure). Both of this religion are sure strongly connected each other that there's is two world likeable earth and hell.
okay we didn't talk about the character in ao no exorcist but the fact Mephistopheles (also Mephistophilus, Mephistophilis, Mephostopheles, Mephisto, Mephastophilis and variants) is a demon featured in German folklore. He originally appeared in literature as the demon in the Faust legend, and he has since appeared in other works as a stock character version of the Devil himself.
In the Faust legend
The name appears in the late 16th century Faust chapbooks. In the 1725 version which was read by Goethe, Mephostophiles is a Devil in the form of a greyfriar summoned by Faust in a wood outside Wittenberg. The name Mephistophiles already appears in the 1527 Praxis Magia Faustiana, printed in Passau, alongside pseudo-Hebrew text. It is best explained as a purposely obscure pseudo-Greek or pseudo-Hebrew formation of Renaissance magic.
From the chapbook, the name enters Faustian literature and is also used by authors from Marlowe down to Goethe. In the 1616 edition of The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus, Mephostophiles became Mephistophilis.
Greek elements may have played a part in the coining of the name, including Greek mē "not", phōs "light" and philos "lover", suggesting "not a lover of light" in parody of Lucifer ("light-bearer", a common epithet of Satan); in that case, the change from the presumed original mephoto- to mephist- may be due to a suggestion of the Latin mephitis ("a noxious exhalation from the ground; malaria").
Alternatively, phosto- may be a variation of "Faust," yielding "not Faust-loving." Hamlin suggests a derivation from the Hebrew Mephistoph, meaning "destroyer of the good."
Another possibility is a combination of the Hebrew words mephiz ("liar") and tophel ("destroyer").
Another possibility is Latin mephitis, treated incorrectly as Greek because it contains '-ph-', plus the Greek superlative suffix -ιστος, plus Greek -ωφελης = "help(ful), useful": "he who is the worst or foulest sort of (alleged) help." (Compare Anopheles (a malaria mosquito) from Greek α(ν)- = "not", plus -ωφελης, = "no help, the reverse of help.")
Mephistopheles in later treatments of the Faust material frequently figures as a title character: in Meyer Lutz' Mephistopheles, or Faust and Marguerite (1855), Arrigo Boito's Mefistofele (1868), Klaus Mann's Mephisto, and Franz Liszt's Mephisto Waltzes.
Critical History – Interpretation of Mephistopheles
Although Mephistopheles appears to Faustus as a devil — a worker of Satan — critics claim that he does not search for men to corrupt but comes to serve and ultimately collect the souls of those who are already damned. Farnham explains, "Nor does Mephistophiles first appear to Faustus as a devil who walks up and down in earth to tempt and corrupt any man encountered. He appears because he senses in Faustus’ magical summons that Faustus is already corrupt, that indeed he is already 'in danger to be damned'.
Mephistopheles is already trapped in his own hell by serving the Devil. He warns Faustus of the choice he is making by “selling his soul” to the Devil: “Mephistophilis, an agent of Lucifer, appears and at first advises Faust not to forgo the promise of heaven to pursue his goals”. Farnham adds to his theory, “…[Faustus] enters an ever-present private hell like that of Mephistophiles”. Both Farnham and Krstovic/Lazzardi see Mephistopheles as a worker of the devil who was summoned by the already-damned soul of Faustus. But the Gale Literature Criticism takes him to the next step, almost portraying Mephistopheles as a protector while Farnham displays him as a servant of Lucifer.
Mephistopheles: What kind of Angel?
Certain critics have viewed the Faust story as a distortion of Christianity. “Christianity is invoked by parody in the very shape of the play. Susan Snyder points out that it is an “inverted Saint’s life,” complete with the “sinful” early life (a student of divinity), “conversion” (to the Devil), reception into the Church (of Lucifer), “temptation” (by the Good Angel), overcome by help (of the Bad Angel), miracles and beatific visions (of the pagan Helen), and the final reception into the house of the Lord (Lucifer).However, Mephistophilis does warn Faustus of his regret for losing God and the joys of heaven. He wants Faustus’ soul but also may want to save him from the mistake he made. "Christianity speaks of hell for those who cast it aside. But, says he to Mephistopheles as he delivers to him the agreement to surrender his soul at the end of twenty-four years, 'I think hell’s a fable.' 'Ay,' says Mephistopheles, 'think so still, till experience change thy mind.'
Mephistopheles' Relationship with Faustus
In Doctor Faustus, Mephistopheles acts as a guide to Faustus. Mephistopheles is not only a speaker for the Devil, but he is also seen as a possible lover to the character. In the play, Faustus asks Mephistopheles for a wife and, when he returns, the woman is just a devil in disguise as a woman. According to Hammill, “the wife that [Mephistopheles] brings demonstrates that marriage is not a signifier that can stabilize the gender. The play... instead replaces this wife with a series of courtesans in an economy of homosocial exchange. Hammill also explains that Mephistopheles brings Faustus a wife who is not actually a woman because he wants to bring up sexual tension between Faustus and himself. This article describes the conversation between the two characters during this scene as “barely legible as male friendship”. The article goes on to explain that the conversation is no longer considered to be friendly because the women whom they are discussing appear to have very masculine features. According to another article, Marlowe was homosexual. Orgel argues that “Marlowe's imagination was essentially homosexual”. In “Myth, Psychology, and Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus”, Kenneth Golden explains Mephistopheles' role representing Faustus' alter ego constructed from his suppressed feelings.
In Demonology, Amaymon (also Amaimon, or Amoymon) is a Prince of Hell, and, according to some Grimoires, the only one who has power over Asmodai. A curious characteristic of this Spirit is shown during the Evocation of Asmodai to visible appearance, when the Exorcist must stand upright with his Cap or Headdress removed in a show of respect; for if he does not it is Amaymon who will deceive him and doom all his work. Amaymon is said to have a deadly poisonous breath. The Lesser Key of Solomon states the Exorcist or conjurer must be in possession of a Silver Ring, duly consecrated and worn on the middle finger as a form of protection against this poisonous astral breath. According to Pseudomonarchia Daemonum he is the King of the West, although for some translations of The Lesser Key of Solomon he is King of the East (Although some translations of The Lesser Key of Solomon consider Belial, Beleth, Asmodai and Gaap kings of the four cardinal directions, though not giving detail on the cardinal point each rule).
okay see. it's really similar with the anime and manga of ao no exorcist
Do you know Shiratori? the guy who fight with Rin in episode 1? please said yesh. He's possessed by a demon named Astaroth who's tried to getting back Rin to Gehenna.
Astaroth in demonology, is a Crowned Prince of Hell. He is a male figure named after the Canaanite goddess Ashtoreth. The name Astaroth was ultimately derived from that of 2nd millennium BC Phoenician goddess Astarte, an equivalent of the Babylonian Ishtar, and the earlier Sumerian Inanna. She is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible in the forms Ashtoreth (singular) and Ashtaroth (plural, in reference to multiple statues of her). This latter form was directly transliterated in the early Greek and Latin versions of the Bible, where it was less apparent that it had been a plural feminine in Hebrew.
The pseudepigraphal work Testament of Solomon, attributed to King Solomon of Israel, but thought to date to the early centuries AD, mentions "Asteraoth" (in Greek) as an angel, who is opposed to the demon of power. (cf. 1 Kings 11:4-5)
The name "Astaroth" as a male demon is first known from The Book of Abramelin, written in Hebrew ca. 1458, and recurred in most occult grimoires of the following centuries. Astaroth also features as an arch-demon associated with the qliphoth (adverse forces) according to later Kabbalistic texts.
He is referred to in The Lesser Key of Solomon as a very powerful demon. In art, in the Dictionnaire Infernal, Astaroth is depicted as a nude man with feathered wings, wearing a crown, holding a serpent in one hand, and riding a beast with dragon-like wings and a serpent-like tail. According to Sebastien Michaelis he is a demon of the First Hierarchy, who seduces by means of laziness, vanity, and rationalized philosophies. His adversary is St. Bartholomew, who can protect against him for he has resisted Astaroth's temptations. To others, he teaches mathematical sciences and handicrafts, can make men invisible and lead them to hidden treasures, and answers every question formulated to him. He was also said to give to mortal beings the power over serpents.
According to Francis Barrett, Astaroth is the prince of accusers and inquisitors. According to some demonologists of the 16th century, August is the month during which this demon's attacks against man are stronger.
Rin used his sword named Kurikara. Do you know what actually is Kurikara? Let's check it out.
the Sword Kurikara(倶利伽羅不動剣, "Kurikara Fuudo")
Kurikara Fudoo is another personification of this deity, this time in the form of a Dragon-Sword. The Dargon King Kurikara (Sanskrit: Kulikaa Nagaraajaa) is said to have a golden body color and is sometimes depicted with one or two horns on his head.
Legend has it that Fudoo had to fight the representative of a different religion. He changed himself into a flaming sword but the opponent did the same and the fighting went on without a winner. Now Fudoo changed himself into the Dragon Kurikara, wound himself around the opposing sword and started eating it from the top. This episode gave rise to the iconographic rendering as we know it now.
The dragon used to be a vasall or symbol of the deity, but in this unique case the symbol and the deity came to be honored as the same thing. Especially during the Edo period where the sword was a symbol of the vasall's loyalty to his lord, the statues and steles of Kurikara Fudoo were produced in greater numbers.
Talk about Familiar in Ao no Exorcist must be refer to Kuro. but what about Nii-san and Byakko's? indeed they're also familiar. so Let's check this out
Nekomata(猫又, or 猫股 "forked-cat")
yes this is refers to kuro. see him with his two tails?
also called as bakeneko (化け猫, "monster-cat"). it is in Japanese folklore, a cat with supernatural abilities akin to those of the fox or raccoon dog. A cat may become a bakeneko in a number of ways: it may reach a certain age, be kept for a certain number of years, grow to a certain size, or be allowed to keep a long tail. In the last case, the tail forks in two and the bakeneko is then called a nekomata.
In the early 17th century the Japanese used cats to kill off the rats and mice that were threatening the silkworms. During this time it was illegal to buy or sell cats. Most of the cats in Japan were set free to roam around the cities. Stories about these street cats became legends over time. There are many stories about the supernatural abilities of the bake-neko: talking, walking on their two rear legs, shapeshifting, flying, killing people, and even resurrecting the dead. Because of the stories about the bake-neko some Japanese people may have cut their cat’s tail off to stop them from becoming a bake-neko. Cats that were caught drinking lamp oil were also considered to be bake-neko. Cats may have regularly been drinking lamp oil as it was based on fish oil.
refers to kuro again. why so? kuro can also called as cat sith but meaning seems kinda different with nekomata.
The Cat Sìth or Cat Sidhe is a fairy creature from Celtic mythology, said to resemble a large black cat with a white spot on its breast. Legend has it that the spectral cat haunts the Scottish Highlands. Some common folklore suggested that the Cat Sìth was not a fairy, but a transformed witch.
The legends surrounding this creature are more common in Scottish folklore, but a few occur in Irish as well.
As proposed by British cryptozoologist, Karl Shuker, in his book Mystery Cats of the World (1989), it is possible that the legends of the Cat Sìth were inspired by Kellas Cats, which are probably a distinctive hybrid between European Wildcats and domestic cats only found in Scotland (the European Wildcat is absent from elsewhere in the British Isles). Typical Kellas Cats resemble large black wildcats, but with some peculiar features closer to domestic cats, and have probably been present in Scotland for centuries, maybe even some 2 millennia or more.
A similar creature appears in Edgar Allan Poe's short story, "The Black Cat," in which an ominous feline appears with a white patch on its breast whose shape appears to change into that of the gallows as a means of exacting vengeance on its master for its predecessor's death.
refers to shiemi familiar(?) "nii-san" which in ao no exorcist called green man spirit.
But the fact, A Green Man is a sculpture, drawing, or other representation of a face surrounded by or made from leaves. Branches or vines may sprout from the nose, mouth, nostrils or other parts of the face and these shoots may bear flowers or fruit. Commonly used as a decorative architectural ornament, Green Men are frequently found on carvings in churches and other buildings (both secular and ecclesiastical). "The Green Man" is also a popular name for English public houses and various interpretations of the name appear on inn signs, which sometimes show a full figure rather than just the head.
The Green Man motif has many variations. Found in many cultures around the world, the Green Man is often related to natural vegetative deities springing up in different cultures throughout the ages. Primarily it is interpreted as a symbol of rebirth, or "renaissance," representing the cycle of growth each spring. Some speculate that the mythology of the Green Man developed independently in the traditions of separate ancient cultures and evolved into the wide variety of examples found throughout history.
Types of Green Men
Lady Raglan coined the term "Green Man" in her 1939 article "The Green Man in Church Architecture" in The Folklore Journal. Some commentators conflate or associate the term with "Jack in the green".
Usually referred to in works on architecture as foliate heads or foliate masks, carvings of the Green Man may take many forms, naturalistic or decorative. The simplest depict a man's face peering out of dense foliage. Some may have leaves for hair, perhaps with a leafy beard. Often leaves or leafy shoots are shown growing from his open mouth and sometimes even from the nose and eyes as well. In the most abstract examples, the carving at first glance appears to be merely stylised foliage, with the facial element only becoming apparent on closer examination. The face is almost always male; green women are rare. Green cats, lions, and demons are also found. On gravestones and other memorials, human skulls are sometimes shown sprouting grape vines or other vegetation, presumably as a symbol of resurrection (as at Shebbear, Devon, England).
The Green Man appears in many forms, with the three most common types categorized as:
Byakko (白虎, White Tiger)
refers to izumo familiar(?) Byakko's. it's actually based on Chinese astronomy.It represents the west and the autumn season.
During the Han Dynasty, people believed the tiger to be the king of all beasts. According to legend the tiger's tail would turn into white when it reached the age of 500 years. In this way, the white tiger became a kind of mythological creature. It was said that the white tiger would only appear when the emperor ruled with absolute virtue, or if there was peace throughout the world. Because the color white of the Chinese five elements also represents the west, the white tiger thus became a mythological guardian of the west.
In the novel Shuo Tang Yanyi (Tales of Tang Dynasty), the reincarnation of White Tiger's Star is said to be Li Shimin's general Luo Cheng (羅成) and the reincarnation of Azure Dragon's Star is said to be the rebellious general Shan Xiongxin (單雄信). They two are sworn brothers of Qin Shubao (秦叔寶), Cheng Zhijie (程知節) and Yuchi Jingde (尉遲敬德). Their souls after death are said to possess the body of the new heroes of Tang Dynasty and Liao Dynasty, Xue Rengui (薛仁貴) and He Suwen (郃苏文).
In some legends of the Tang Dynasty's general Xue Rengui, he is said to be the reincarnation of the White Tiger's Star, and his archenemy, the Liao Dynasty's prince He Suwen is the reincarnation of the Azure Dragon's Star.
The Masho is an ancient Buddhist term, literally meaning demonic hindrances. Any person desiring to become an Exorcist must go through a Masho as a first step. Ordinarily, humans cannot see demons on a physical plane. However, once a person comes in contact with a demon (normally through physical contact), they have the ability to see demons for the rest of their life. A Masho rite for an initiate Exorcist who had not experienced one previously is normally done under very controlled circumstances, so as to prevent anyone from being injured or harmed. In the English translation of the Manga, it is called 'Temptaint'.
In order for an individual to become an exorcist, they must obtain the title of a 'meister'. A meister is a general term for an exorcist's style of combat; an exorcist can acquire more than one. The fighting styles are classified into five categories: