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Is circumcision child abuse?
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Posted 5/3/12 , edited 5/3/12

shinto-male wrote:



Dr. Hatem al-Haj, PhD, MD, a senior committee member of the Association of Muslim Jurists of America (AMJA), has recently published a 41-page Arabic-language paper titled “Circumcision of Girls: Jurisprudence and Medicine.”

According to the “Translating Jihad” blog, Dr. al-Haj explains why female circumcision is recommended and even “an honor” for women. This is the practice known as female genital mutilation (FGM).

According to the UN World Health Organization (WHO), FGM ” has no health benefits for women,” and causes “severe bleeding and problems urinating, and later cysts, infections, infertility, as well as complications in childbirth.”

The Translating Jihad blog was established in 2010 to provide translations of Arabic-language news, opinion, and fatwas related to Islamic intolerance, totalitarianism, and jihad.

According to TJ, Dr. al-Haj, a medical doctor and fellow at the American Academy of Pediatrics, justifies his position by referring repeatedly to the words of classical Islamic scholars from the four schools of mainstream Sunni Islamic thought, all of which attest to FGM’s legitimacy under Islam. He also refers to the words of the Prophet Muhammad himself, who reportedly counseled people in his day on how to perform FGM in a way that would be “more beautiful to behold and better for [the woman's] husband.”

http://www.jewishpress.com/news/yoris-daily-news-clips/us-pediatric-doctor-favors-female-circumcision/2012/04/30/

kinda hypocritical for a jewish news site to condemn this man who is no different from pro-circumcision jewish doctors and rabbis in the pro-circ world


Two things:
1. Female Circumcision is not required in Islam,





2. Female Circumcision is no way like Male Circumcision. On the first head, Female Circumcision is always more severe, involving the removal of either part of, or all of, the clitorus, the inner and outer libia, and, in some cases, for the vulva to be sewn shut with barely enough to allow for urination and menstration, which leads to various lifetime disorders, pain during Sex, usually unable to give birth without a C-Section, all to lower the libido of their womanfolks. Compare that with Male circumcision, the removal of the foreskin with no long term health damage, and no change in either libido or sexual pleasure. How this is anything like the removal of the foreskin is beyond me.





Two boys died in Bodhan town in the district late on Monday night due to over bleeding. A rural medical practitioner performed circumcision on the boys five days ago, which led to uncontrolled bleeding.

The deceased were identified as Arif, 4, and Azhar, ,3 of Rakasipet in Bodhan.

It is believed that the negligence of RMP led to the death of children. According to sources, parents got the two children circumcised five days ago at Masjid Colony in Rakasipet area.

After the surgery, the boys had suffered bleeding, but the RMP advised them not to worry and it could be cured with medicines.

But, Arif and Azhar, breathed their last on Monday.

Reportedly, the RMP agreed to pay Rs.3 lakh compensation to the parents of the deceased and no police case was registered in this regard.

http://www.deccanchronicle.com/channels/cities/regions/karimnagar/circumcision-goes-awry-two-boys-die-746


Does this show anything but that the doctors were incompetant?




No protection to women



The Lancet, Volume 374, Issue 9685, Pages 229 - 237, 18 July 2009
Circumcision in HIV-infected men and its effect on HIV transmission to female partners in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised controlled trial

Dr, Prof Maria J Wawer MD, Frederick Makumbi PhD, Godfrey Kigozi MBChB, David Serwadda MMed, Stephen Watya MMed, Fred Nalugoda MHS, Dennis Buwembo MBChB, Victor Ssempijja ScM, Noah Kiwanuka MBChB, Prof Lawrence H Moulton PhD, Nelson K Sewankambo MMed, Steven J Reynolds MD, Thomas C Quinn MD, Pius Opendi MBChB, Boaz Iga MSc, Renee Ridzon MD, Oliver Laeyendecker MBA, Prof Ronald H Gray MD

Summary
Background
Observational studies have reported an association between male circumcision and reduced risk of HIV infection in female partners. We assessed whether circumcision in HIV-infected men would reduce transmission of the virus to female sexual partners.

Methods
922 uncircumcised, HIV-infected, asymptomatic men aged 15-49 years with CD4-cell counts 350 cells per ?L or more were enrolled in this unblinded, randomised controlled trial in Rakai District, Uganda. Men were randomly assigned by computer-generated randomisation sequence to receive immediate circumcision (intervention; n=474) or circumcision delayed for 24 months (control; n=448). HIV-uninfected female partners of the randomised men were concurrently enrolled (intervention, n=93; control, n=70) and followed up at 6, 12, and 24 months, to assess HIV acquisition by male treatment assignment (primary outcome). A modified intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, which included all concurrently enrolled couples in which the female partner had at least one follow-up visit over 24 months, assessed female HIV acquisition by use of survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00124878.

Findings
The trial was stopped early because of futility. 92 couples in the intervention group and 67 couples in the control group were included in the modified ITT analysis. 17 (18%) women in the intervention group and eight (12%) women in the control group acquired HIV during follow-up (p=0·36). Cumulative probabilities of female HIV infection at 24 months were 21·7% (95% CI 12·7-33·4) in the intervention group and 13·4% (6·7-25·8) in the control group (adjusted hazard ratio 1·49, 95% CI 0·62-3·57; p=0·368).

Interpretation
Circumcision of HIV-infected men did not reduce HIV transmission to female partners over 24 months; longer-term effects could not be assessed. Condom use after male circumcision is essential for HIV prevention.

Funding
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation with additional laboratory and training support from the National Institutes of Health and the Fogarty International Center.


http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/191/4/546
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(07)60313-4/abstract

So you admit that it does prevent the aquisition of HIV among men? Even if it doesn't protect women, it only shows that other methods should be considered in conjunction with circumcision.
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Posted 5/3/12 , edited 5/3/12
Circumcsion does not protect black South Africans

A total of 2585 males over the age of 15 were administered questionnaires and provided specimens for HIV testing. 916 (35.4%) of them said they were circumcised. HIV prevalence among circumcised males was 10.7% and among uncircumcised males was 12.1%, p = 0.9 [i.e. no statistical significance]. Blacks were less likely to be circumcised (28.8%) compared to other racial groups, 42.6%, p = 0.002. When the data was stratified by racial group, circumcised Blacks showed similar rates of HIV as uncircumcised Blacks, (OR: 0.8, p = 0.4) however other racial groups showed a strong protective effect, (OR: 0.3, p = 0.01) [or rather, a correlation]. When the data are further stratified by age of circumcision, there is a slight protective effect [correlation] between early circumcision and HIV among Blacks, OR: 0.7, p = 0.4.
Conclusion In general, circumcision offers slight protection. The effect is much stronger in other racial groups than in blacks. This racial difference cannot be explained by age of circumcision.

HIV and circumcision in South Africa
C.A. Connolly, O. Shisana, L. Simbayi, M. Colvin.
Poster at the XV AIDS Conference in Bangkok [MoPeC3491]



Those "protective effects" disappeared on further analysis

South African Medical Journal, October 2008, Vol. 98, No. 10
Male circumcision and its relationship to HIV infection in South Africa: Results of a national survey in 2002

Catherine Connolly, Leickness C Simbayi, Rebecca Shanmugam, Ayanda Nqeketo

Objective. To investigate the nature of male circumcision and its relationship to HIV infection. Methods. Analysis of a sub-sample of 3 025 men aged 15 years and older who participated in the first national population-based survey on HIV/AIDS in 2002. Chi-square tests and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to identify factors associated with circumcision and HIV status, followed by a logistic regression model.

Results. One-third of the men (35.3%) were circumcised. The factors strongly associated with circumcision were age >50, black living in rural areas and speaking SePedi (71.2%) or IsiXhosa (64.3%). The median age was significantly older for blacks (18 years) compared with other racial groups (3.5 years), p <0.001. Among blacks, circumcisions were mainly conducted outside hospital settings. In 40.5% of subjects, circumcision took place after sexual debut; two-thirds of the men circumcised after their 17th birthday were already sexually active. HIV and circumcision were not associated (12.3% HIV positive in the circumcised group v. 12% HIV positive in the uncircumcised group). HIV was, however, significantly lower in men circumcised before 12 years of age (6.8%) than in those circumcised after 12 years of age (13.5%, p=0.02). When restricted to sexually active men, the difference that remained did not reach statistical significance (8.9% v. 13.6%, p=0.08.). There was no effect when adjusted for possible confounding.

Conclusion. Circumcision had no protective effect in the prevention of HIV transmission. This is a concern, and has implications for the possible adoption of the mass male circumcision strategy both as a public health policy and an HIV prevention strategy.








No protection to Australians

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 35: 459–465.
doi: 10.1111/j.1753-6405.2011.00761.x

Not a surgical vaccine: there is no case for boosting infant male circumcision to combat heterosexual transmission of HIV in Australia
Robert Darby, Robert Van Howe

Abstract

Objective: To conduct a critical review of recent proposals that widespread circumcision of male infants be introduced in Australia as a means of combating heterosexually transmitted HIV infection.

Approach: These arguments are evaluated in terms of their logic, coherence and fidelity to the principles of evidence-based medicine; the extent to which they take account of the evidence for circumcision having a protective effect against HIV and the practicality of circumcision as an HIV control strategy; the extent of its applicability to the specifics of Australia's HIV epidemic; the benefits, harms and risks of circumcision; and the associated human rights, bioethical and legal issues.

Conclusion: Our conclusion is that such proposals ignore doubts about the robustness of the evidence from the African random-controlled trials as to the protective effect of circumcision and the practical value of circumcision as a means of HIV control; misrepresent the nature of Australia's HIV epidemic and exaggerate the relevance of the African random-controlled trials findings to it; underestimate the risks and harm of circumcision; and ignore questions of medical ethics and human rights. The notion of circumcision as a ‘surgical vaccine’ is criticised as polemical and unscientific.

Implications: Circumcision of infants or other minors has no place among HIV control measures in the Australian and New Zealand context; proposals such as these should be rejected.




circumcision offer NO PROTECTION for gay men



No protection to US men who have sex with men

AIDS Patient Care and STDs

Relations Between Circumcision Status, Sexually Transmitted Infection History, and HIV Serostatus Among a National Sample of Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States

Kristen Jozkowski, Joshua G. Rosenberger, Vanessa Schick, Debby Herbenick, David S. Novak, Michael Reece. AIDS Patient Care and STDs. August 2010, 24(8): 465-470.

Abstract
Circumcision's potential link to HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STI) has been at the center of recent global public health debates. However, data related to circumcision and sexual health remain limited, with most research focused on heterosexual men. This study sought to assess behavioral differences among a large sample of circumcised and noncircumcised men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. Data were collected from 26,257U.S. MSM through an online survey. [An online survey is a population sample of unknown randomness.] Measures included circumcision status, health indicators, HIV/STI screening and diagnosis, sexual behaviors, and condom use. Bivariate and regression analyses were conducted to determine differences between HIV/STI status, sexual behaviors, and condom use among circumcised and noncircumcised men. Circumcision status did not significantly predict HIV testing (p>0.05), or HIV serostatus (p>0.05), and [there were no significant differences based on circumcision status for most STI diagnosis [syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, human papilloma virus (HPV)]. Being noncircumcised was predictive of herpes-2 diagnosis, however, condom use mediated this relationship.] [That is, circumcised men were more likely to use condoms, and it was this that protected them from herpes, not being circumcised. This suggests that being circumcised increased their risk of the other STIs.] These data provide one of the first large national assessments of circumcision among MSM. While being noncircumcised did not increase the likelihood of HIV and most STI infections, results indicated that circumcision was associated with higher rates of condom use, suggesting that those who promote condoms among MSM may need to better understand condom-related behaviors and attitudes among noncircumcised men to enhance the extent to which they are willing to use condoms consistently.



No protection to US Black and Latino men who have unprotected insertive sex with men

JAIDS
December 15, 2007
Circumcision Status and HIV Infection Among Black and Latino Men Who Have Sex With Men in 3 US Cities.

Millett, Gregorio A; Ding, Helen; Lauby, Jennifer; Flores, Stephen; Stueve, Ann; Bingham, Trista; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Murrill, Chris; Liu, Kai-Lih; Wheeler, Darrell; Liau, Adrian; Marks, Gary

Abstract:
Objective: To examine characteristics of circumcised and uncircumcised Latino and black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States and assess the association between circumcision and HIV infection.

Methods: Using respondent-driven sampling, 1154 black MSM and 1091 Latino MSM were recruited from New York City, Philadelphia, and Los Angeles. A 45-minute computer-assisted interview and a rapid oral fluid HIV antibody test (OraSure Technologies, Bethlehem, PA) were administered to participants.

Results: Circumcision prevalence was higher among black MSM than among Latino MSM (74% vs. 33%; P < 0.0001). Circumcised MSM in both racial/ethnic groups were more likely than uncircumcised MSM to be born in the United States or to have a US-born parent. Circumcision status was not associated with prevalent HIV infection among Latino MSM, black MSM, black bisexual men, or black or Latino men who reported being HIV-negative based on their last HIV test. Further, circumcision was not associated with a reduced likelihood of HIV infection among men who had engaged in unprotected insertive and not unprotected receptive anal sex.

Conclusions: In these cross-sectional data, there was no evidence that being circumcised was protective against HIV infection among black MSM or Latino MSM.

JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 46(5):643-650, December 15, 2007.



No protection to Scottish men who have sex with men

Sex Transm Infect. 2010 Jun 30

Circumcision among men who have sex with men in Scotland: limited potential for HIV prevention. McDaid LM, Weiss HA, Hart GJ.

Abstract
Objective Male circumcision has been shown to reduce the risk of HIV acquisition among heterosexual men but the impact among men who have sex with men (MSM) is not known. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of research into circumcision for HIV prevention among MSM in Scotland.
Methods Anonymous, self-complete questionnaires and Orasure oral fluid collection kits were distributed to men visiting the commercial gay scenes in Glasgow and Edinburgh.
Results 1508 men completed questionnaires (70.5% response rate) and 1277 provided oral fluid samples (59.7% response rate). Overall, 1405 men were eligible for inclusion in the analyses. 16.6% reported having been circumcised. HIV prevalence was similar among circumcised and uncircumcised men (4.2% and 4.6%, respectively). Although biologically, circumcision is most likely to protect against HIV for men practising unprotected insertive anal intercourse (UIAI), only 7.8% (91/1172) of uncircumcised men reported exclusive UIAI in the past 12 months. Relatively few men reported being willing to participate in a research study on circumcision and HIV prevention (13.9%), and only 11.3% of uncircumcised men did so. Conclusion The lack of association between circumcision and HIV status, low levels of exclusive UIAI, and low levels of willingness to take part in circumcision research studies suggest circumcision is unlikely to be a feasible HIV prevention strategy for MSM in the UK. Behaviour change should continue to be the focus of HIV prevention in this population.

PMID: 20595141


Posted 5/3/12
From my experience, I do not believe it is abuse.

In this world, not every doctor in every hospital performed circumcision for birth babies. My father is in his late 50's and not too long ago, went into surgery to get circumcised because it caused him a lot of pain when he tried to urinate. His case was extremely severe and we are glad he underwent surgery because if he didn't get help as soon as possible, I would have lost a father.
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Posted 5/3/12 , edited 5/3/12
circumcision is fine if it used as a last resort for medical reasons








Rising incidence of HIV and syphilis in Israel

A sharply rising incidence of HIV, syphilis and other sexually transmitted infections in Israel is worrying medical authorities and casting further doubt on claims that circumcision provides “strong” protection against such diseases. Two articles and an editorial in the March 2012 edition of the Israeli Medical Association Journal describe a “resurgence” of syphilis and HIV, especially among men who have sex with men in Tel Aviv, and warn of the risk of an “epidemic” affecting the heterosexual population. The studies are unsure of the reasons for the resurgence, but lay the principal blame on the rise of unprotected sex, as a result of treatment optimism, condom fatigue and the use of “disinhibiting substances”, such as alcohol and other drugs. They also mention the effects of big city life, which nurtures the growth of sexual sub-cultures and wide-ranging sexual networks, with increased opportunities for taking multiple sexual partners and fast, anonymous sexual encounters.

What is particularly significant about these explanations is the absence of any reference to circumcision. Researchers did record the circumcision status of clients at one STD clinic, but found no statistically significant correlation between lack of circumcision and greater susceptibility to venereal infections. These conclusions certainly provide no support for the contention of circumcision advocates, such as Brian Morris and buddies, that universal and ideally compulsory circumcision of infants is necessary to prevent epidemics of STIs in Australia. For obvious cultural reasons, Israel already has universal, semi-compulsory circumcision of infants, and it is still experiencing an alarming increase in the incidence of HIV, syphilis and other STIs. It is thus clear that behavioural factors, such as numerous sexual partners and failure to practise safe sex, are far more important than anatomy in explaining the rise of these health problems. In other words, lay off the foreskins of innocent children, and worry about the behavioural choices of randy adults!

Source: Itzchak Levy, The Resurgence, in Israel, of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Syphilis among Men Having Sex with Men, Israeli Medical Association Journal 14, March 2012, 166-167





2106 cr points
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Posted 5/4/12

shinto-male wrote:

Circumcsion does not protect black South Africans

A total of 2585 males over the age of 15 were administered questionnaires and provided specimens for HIV testing. 916 (35.4%) of them said they were circumcised. HIV prevalence among circumcised males was 10.7% and among uncircumcised males was 12.1%, p = 0.9 [i.e. no statistical significance]. Blacks were less likely to be circumcised (28.8%) compared to other racial groups, 42.6%, p = 0.002. When the data was stratified by racial group, circumcised Blacks showed similar rates of HIV as uncircumcised Blacks, (OR: 0.8, p = 0.4) however other racial groups showed a strong protective effect, (OR: 0.3, p = 0.01) [or rather, a correlation]. When the data are further stratified by age of circumcision, there is a slight protective effect [correlation] between early circumcision and HIV among Blacks, OR: 0.7, p = 0.4.
Conclusion In general, circumcision offers slight protection. The effect is much stronger in other racial groups than in blacks. This racial difference cannot be explained by age of circumcision.

HIV and circumcision in South Africa
C.A. Connolly, O. Shisana, L. Simbayi, M. Colvin.
Poster at the XV AIDS Conference in Bangkok [MoPeC3491]



Those "protective effects" disappeared on further analysis

South African Medical Journal, October 2008, Vol. 98, No. 10
Male circumcision and its relationship to HIV infection in South Africa: Results of a national survey in 2002

Catherine Connolly, Leickness C Simbayi, Rebecca Shanmugam, Ayanda Nqeketo

Objective. To investigate the nature of male circumcision and its relationship to HIV infection. Methods. Analysis of a sub-sample of 3 025 men aged 15 years and older who participated in the first national population-based survey on HIV/AIDS in 2002. Chi-square tests and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to identify factors associated with circumcision and HIV status, followed by a logistic regression model.

Results. One-third of the men (35.3%) were circumcised. The factors strongly associated with circumcision were age >50, black living in rural areas and speaking SePedi (71.2%) or IsiXhosa (64.3%). The median age was significantly older for blacks (18 years) compared with other racial groups (3.5 years), p <0.001. Among blacks, circumcisions were mainly conducted outside hospital settings. In 40.5% of subjects, circumcision took place after sexual debut; two-thirds of the men circumcised after their 17th birthday were already sexually active. HIV and circumcision were not associated (12.3% HIV positive in the circumcised group v. 12% HIV positive in the uncircumcised group). HIV was, however, significantly lower in men circumcised before 12 years of age (6.8%) than in those circumcised after 12 years of age (13.5%, p=0.02). When restricted to sexually active men, the difference that remained did not reach statistical significance (8.9% v. 13.6%, p=0.08.). There was no effect when adjusted for possible confounding.

Conclusion. Circumcision had no protective effect in the prevention of HIV transmission. This is a concern, and has implications for the possible adoption of the mass male circumcision strategy both as a public health policy and an HIV prevention strategy.


Not according to Proffessor Auvert of the University of Versaille and his team (Not American, therefore not part of your grand conspiracy of infant hating money maker- promoter of evil and what not).

Effect of the Orange Farm (South Africa) male circumcision roll-out (ANRS-12126) on the spread of HIV
Presented by Bertran Auvert (France).




http://pag.ias2011.org/abstracts.aspx?aid=4792
B. Auvert1, D. Taljaard2, D. Rech2, P. Lissouba3, B. Singh4, D. Shabangu2, C. Nhlapo5, J. Otchere-Darko2, T. Mashigo2, G. Phatedi2, R. Taljaard2, M. Tsepe2, M. Chakela2, A. Mkhwanazi2, P. Ntshangase2, S. Billy5, D. Lewis4

1Univeristy of Versailles, Versailles, France, 2Progressus, Johannesburg, South Africa, 3Inserm 1018, Villejuif, France, 4NICD-NHLS, Johannesburg, South Africa, 5SFH, Johannesburg, South Africa


Background: The real-world effect of the roll-out of medical male circumcision (MMC) in Southern and Eastern Africa on the HIV epidemic is unknown. Three years after the beginning of the Orange Farm (South Africa) MMC roll-out (ANRS-12126), the project´s impact on the spread of HIV in the community was assessed.
Methods: Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted, one in 2007, before the beginning of the project, and one in late 2010. The response rates exceeded 80%. Male residents aged 15 to 49 (1,198 in 2007 and 1,195 in 2010) were randomly sampled, interviewed, counseled and tested for HIV. The 2010 HIV-positive samples were tested using the Calypte HIV-1 BED Incidence EIA (BED) assay with corrections for misclassifications. HIV prevalence and incidence among circumcised and uncircumcised men from the 2010 survey were compared using a weighted propensity score analysis based on a Poisson regression model.
Results: MMC prevalence increased from 15.6% to 49.4% among participants aged 15 to 49. No effect of MMC status on sexual behavior was detected. In the 15 to 49 age group, HIV prevalence was 20.0% (117/586) among uncircumcised men and 6.2% (36/582) among circumcised men (P< 0.001). The adjusted prevalence ratio was 0.45 (95%CI: 0.30−0.63). In the 15 to 34 age group, the corrected HIV incidence rate was 2.86 /100 person-year among uncircumcised men and 0.42 /100 person-year among circumcised men. The adjusted incidence rate ratio was 0.20 (95%CI: 0.00−0.55). Without the intervention, if no men were circumcised, HIV prevalence among all men aged 15 to 49 would have been 25.1% (95%CI: 13.1%−39.1%) higher, and HIV incidence among all men aged 15 to 34, 61.0% (95%CI: 23.0%−152%) higher.
Conclusion: This study shows for the first time that the roll-out of MMC in Southern and Eastern Africa, can, if successfully promoted, markedly decrease the spread of HIV in endemic communities.


Nor Proffessor Williams, et al.



http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030262
Conclusions
This analysis is based on the result of just one RCT, but if the results of that trial are confirmed we suggest that MC could substantially reduce the burden of HIV in Africa, especially in southern Africa where the prevalence of MC is low and the prevalence of HIV is high. While the protective benefit to HIV-negative men will be immediate, the full impact of MC on HIV-related illness and death will only be apparent in ten to twenty years.


So yes, Circumcision is not Geographical.





No protection to Australians

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 35: 459–465.
doi: 10.1111/j.1753-6405.2011.00761.x

Not a surgical vaccine: there is no case for boosting infant male circumcision to combat heterosexual transmission of HIV in Australia
Robert Darby, Robert Van Howe

Abstract

Objective: To conduct a critical review of recent proposals that widespread circumcision of male infants be introduced in Australia as a means of combating heterosexually transmitted HIV infection.

Approach: These arguments are evaluated in terms of their logic, coherence and fidelity to the principles of evidence-based medicine; the extent to which they take account of the evidence for circumcision having a protective effect against HIV and the practicality of circumcision as an HIV control strategy; the extent of its applicability to the specifics of Australia's HIV epidemic; the benefits, harms and risks of circumcision; and the associated human rights, bioethical and legal issues.

Conclusion: Our conclusion is that such proposals ignore doubts about the robustness of the evidence from the African random-controlled trials as to the protective effect of circumcision and the practical value of circumcision as a means of HIV control; misrepresent the nature of Australia's HIV epidemic and exaggerate the relevance of the African random-controlled trials findings to it; underestimate the risks and harm of circumcision; and ignore questions of medical ethics and human rights. The notion of circumcision as a ‘surgical vaccine’ is criticised as polemical and unscientific.

Implications: Circumcision of infants or other minors has no place among HIV control measures in the Australian and New Zealand context; proposals such as these should be rejected.


Most major studies, as already shown, would contridict this statement.




circumcision offer NO PROTECTION for gay men



No protection to US men who have sex with men

AIDS Patient Care and STDs

Relations Between Circumcision Status, Sexually Transmitted Infection History, and HIV Serostatus Among a National Sample of Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States

Kristen Jozkowski, Joshua G. Rosenberger, Vanessa Schick, Debby Herbenick, David S. Novak, Michael Reece. AIDS Patient Care and STDs. August 2010, 24(8): 465-470.

Abstract
Circumcision's potential link to HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STI) has been at the center of recent global public health debates. However, data related to circumcision and sexual health remain limited, with most research focused on heterosexual men. This study sought to assess behavioral differences among a large sample of circumcised and noncircumcised men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. Data were collected from 26,257U.S. MSM through an online survey. [An online survey is a population sample of unknown randomness.] Measures included circumcision status, health indicators, HIV/STI screening and diagnosis, sexual behaviors, and condom use. Bivariate and regression analyses were conducted to determine differences between HIV/STI status, sexual behaviors, and condom use among circumcised and noncircumcised men. Circumcision status did not significantly predict HIV testing (p>0.05), or HIV serostatus (p>0.05), and [there were no significant differences based on circumcision status for most STI diagnosis [syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, human papilloma virus (HPV)]. Being noncircumcised was predictive of herpes-2 diagnosis, however, condom use mediated this relationship.] [That is, circumcised men were more likely to use condoms, and it was this that protected them from herpes, not being circumcised. This suggests that being circumcised increased their risk of the other STIs.] These data provide one of the first large national assessments of circumcision among MSM. While being noncircumcised did not increase the likelihood of HIV and most STI infections, results indicated that circumcision was associated with higher rates of condom use, suggesting that those who promote condoms among MSM may need to better understand condom-related behaviors and attitudes among noncircumcised men to enhance the extent to which they are willing to use condoms consistently.



No protection to US Black and Latino men who have unprotected insertive sex with men

JAIDS
December 15, 2007
Circumcision Status and HIV Infection Among Black and Latino Men Who Have Sex With Men in 3 US Cities.

Millett, Gregorio A; Ding, Helen; Lauby, Jennifer; Flores, Stephen; Stueve, Ann; Bingham, Trista; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Murrill, Chris; Liu, Kai-Lih; Wheeler, Darrell; Liau, Adrian; Marks, Gary

Abstract:
Objective: To examine characteristics of circumcised and uncircumcised Latino and black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States and assess the association between circumcision and HIV infection.

Methods: Using respondent-driven sampling, 1154 black MSM and 1091 Latino MSM were recruited from New York City, Philadelphia, and Los Angeles. A 45-minute computer-assisted interview and a rapid oral fluid HIV antibody test (OraSure Technologies, Bethlehem, PA) were administered to participants.

Results: Circumcision prevalence was higher among black MSM than among Latino MSM (74% vs. 33%; P < 0.0001). Circumcised MSM in both racial/ethnic groups were more likely than uncircumcised MSM to be born in the United States or to have a US-born parent. Circumcision status was not associated with prevalent HIV infection among Latino MSM, black MSM, black bisexual men, or black or Latino men who reported being HIV-negative based on their last HIV test. Further, circumcision was not associated with a reduced likelihood of HIV infection among men who had engaged in unprotected insertive and not unprotected receptive anal sex.

Conclusions: In these cross-sectional data, there was no evidence that being circumcised was protective against HIV infection among black MSM or Latino MSM.

JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 46(5):643-650, December 15, 2007.



No protection to Scottish men who have sex with men

Sex Transm Infect. 2010 Jun 30

Circumcision among men who have sex with men in Scotland: limited potential for HIV prevention. McDaid LM, Weiss HA, Hart GJ.

Abstract
Objective Male circumcision has been shown to reduce the risk of HIV acquisition among heterosexual men but the impact among men who have sex with men (MSM) is not known. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of research into circumcision for HIV prevention among MSM in Scotland.
Methods Anonymous, self-complete questionnaires and Orasure oral fluid collection kits were distributed to men visiting the commercial gay scenes in Glasgow and Edinburgh.
Results 1508 men completed questionnaires (70.5% response rate) and 1277 provided oral fluid samples (59.7% response rate). Overall, 1405 men were eligible for inclusion in the analyses. 16.6% reported having been circumcised. HIV prevalence was similar among circumcised and uncircumcised men (4.2% and 4.6%, respectively). Although biologically, circumcision is most likely to protect against HIV for men practising unprotected insertive anal intercourse (UIAI), only 7.8% (91/1172) of uncircumcised men reported exclusive UIAI in the past 12 months. Relatively few men reported being willing to participate in a research study on circumcision and HIV prevention (13.9%), and only 11.3% of uncircumcised men did so. Conclusion The lack of association between circumcision and HIV status, low levels of exclusive UIAI, and low levels of willingness to take part in circumcision research studies suggest circumcision is unlikely to be a feasible HIV prevention strategy for MSM in the UK. Behaviour change should continue to be the focus of HIV prevention in this population.

PMID: 20595141




Didn't you read any of the studies? MC helps with Heterosexually contract HIV, which is why no one is advocating only using Male Circumcision.
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shinto-male wrote:

circumcision is fine if it used as a last resort for medical reasons








Rising incidence of HIV and syphilis in Israel

A sharply rising incidence of HIV, syphilis and other sexually transmitted infections in Israel is worrying medical authorities and casting further doubt on claims that circumcision provides “strong” protection against such diseases. Two articles and an editorial in the March 2012 edition of the Israeli Medical Association Journal describe a “resurgence” of syphilis and HIV, especially among men who have sex with men in Tel Aviv, and warn of the risk of an “epidemic” affecting the heterosexual population. The studies are unsure of the reasons for the resurgence, but lay the principal blame on the rise of unprotected sex, as a result of treatment optimism, condom fatigue and the use of “disinhibiting substances”, such as alcohol and other drugs. They also mention the effects of big city life, which nurtures the growth of sexual sub-cultures and wide-ranging sexual networks, with increased opportunities for taking multiple sexual partners and fast, anonymous sexual encounters.

What is particularly significant about these explanations is the absence of any reference to circumcision. Researchers did record the circumcision status of clients at one STD clinic, but found no statistically significant correlation between lack of circumcision and greater susceptibility to venereal infections. These conclusions certainly provide no support for the contention of circumcision advocates, such as Brian Morris and buddies, that universal and ideally compulsory circumcision of infants is necessary to prevent epidemics of STIs in Australia. For obvious cultural reasons, Israel already has universal, semi-compulsory circumcision of infants, and it is still experiencing an alarming increase in the incidence of HIV, syphilis and other STIs. It is thus clear that behavioural factors, such as numerous sexual partners and failure to practise safe sex, are far more important than anatomy in explaining the rise of these health problems. In other words, lay off the foreskins of innocent children, and worry about the behavioural choices of randy adults!

Source: Itzchak Levy, The Resurgence, in Israel, of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Syphilis among Men Having Sex with Men, Israeli Medical Association Journal 14, March 2012, 166-167





You are focusing only on STDs, you silly sot, when it has been already demonstrated that there are other medical benefits to Circumcision. If only you would stop focusing on other people's penises and mind your own.
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Circumcision not recommended for urinary tract infection

A study in the latest (April 2012) issue of the Australian Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health reviews the treatment and prevention options for urinary tract infections (UTI) in children. It finds that a UTI occurs in approximately 8% of girls and 2% of boys by 7 years of age, and outlines the best treatment options, depending on the nature of the infection and whether it recurs. The study does not recommend circumcision except in the few cases where recurrent episodes have failed to respond to medical (mainly antibiotic) treatment. The study notes that “approximately 20% of children who have had one UTI experience a symptomatic recurrence. Preventing UTI recurrence would avoid further episodes of illness, discomfort and family stress. The likelihood that preventing UTI would prevent clinically important kidney damage is unknown but likely to be very low, given the very low risk of clinically important kidney damage following UTI, and the modest benefit of prophylactic interventions.

“The Royal Australasian College of Physicians’ policy position is that circumcision is not indicated as primary prevention. It could be estimated that between 110 and 140 circumcisions are required to prevent one UTI, while major complications occur in around 2%.** However, circumcision should be considered in boys with a high risk of recurrent febrile infection, that is boys with previous UTIs and/or high-grade VUR,*** where the number needed to treat is between 4 and 11, so that the benefits outweigh the risk of adverse effects.”

Summary

Circumcision is not recommended after first UTI
Consider circumcision in boys with recurrent UTI

Source: Gabrielle J Williams, Elisabeth H Hodson, David Isaacs and Jonathan C Craig, Diagnosis and management of urinary tract infection in children. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 48, April 2012, 296-301




Circumcised men at equal risk of HPV infection

A large-scale study at the University of Washington has found no difference in the incidence of HPV infection between circumcised and uncircumcised male college students. HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) is a large group of viruses that may cause genital warts, and are implicated in the genesis of genital cancers. HPV is very common among the sexually active population. but most people never show any symptoms. The risk factors for the development of cancer have been shown to be numerous different sexual partners and smoking. The new study confirmed previous research which showed that the location of the virus differed between circumcised and uncircumcised men: circumcised men tend to carry the virus on the shaft skin of the penis, while intact men are more likely to carry it on the glans. The study also also found that circumcised men have more sexual partners. In a previous study the researchers found found that for college females the circumcision status of their partner was NOT a risk factor for HPV infection in women. The authors comment that the African Random Clinical Trials, which seemed to show that uncircumcised men were more likely to carry the HPV virus, were seriously flawed because they took samples only from the glans (not from the shaft skin, where the virus is concentrated in the circumcised).

ABSTRACT

Background: The role of circumcision in male HPV acquisition is not clear.

Methods: Male university students (aged 18–20 years) were recruited from 2003 to 2009 and followed up triannually. Shaft/scrotum, glans, and urine samples were tested for 37  human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes. Cox proportional hazards methods were used to evaluate the association between circumcision and HPV acquisition. Logistic regression was used to assess whether the number of genital sites infected at incident HPV detection or site of incident detection varied by circumcision status.

Results: In 477 men, rates of acquiring clinically relevant HPV types (high-risk types plus types 6 and 11) did not differ significantly by circumcision status (hazard ratio for uncircumcised relative to circumcised subjects: 0.9 [95% confidence interval{CI}: 0.7–1.2]). However, compared with circumcised men, uncircumcised men were 10.1 (95% CI: 2.9 –35.6) times more likely to have the same HPV type detected in all 3 genital specimens than in a single genital specimen and were 2.7 (95% CI: 1.6–4.5) times more likely to have an HPV-positive urine or glans specimen at first detection.

Conclusion: We found no differences by circumcision status in overall HPV acquisition or in number of HPV types acquired. Findings held for all clinically relevant HPV types, as well as for the subgroups of high-risk types, high-risk -9 types, and HPV-16. This observation is consistent with findings from other longitudinal studies.

Bottom line: Circumcision does not lower the risk of infection with Human Papilloma Virus. People who claim that uncircumcised men are more likely to develop or communicate genital cancers are ignoring the facts and spreading misleading information.

Source: Kelley Van Buskirk et al, Circumcision and Acquisition of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Young Men, Sexually Transmitted Diseases 38 (12), December 2011.

Journal homepage: http://journals.lww.com/stdjournal/pages/default.aspx

Abstract available at journal - Published ahead of print: http://journals.lww.com/stdjournal/toc/publishahead


“Unethical and illegal”: South African Medical association rejects circumcision of infants

In a letter dated 23 June 2011, the South African Medical Association has stated that it does not support the practice of circumcision of infants as a means of preventing HIV transmission and that it considers circumcision of infants to be both unethical and illegal. The letter was signed by Ms Ulundi Behrtel, Chairperson of the Human Rights, Law and Ethics Committee. The full text of the letter follows:

23 June 2011
Mr Dean Ferris, Co-Director
National Organisation of Circumcision Information Resource Centre, South Africa

Dear Mr Ferris

CIRCUMCISION OF BABIES FOR PROPOSED HIV PREVENTION

We refer to the above matter and your email correspondence of 16 February 2011. The matter was discussed by the members of the Human Rights, Law & Ethics Committee at their previous meeting and they agreed with the content of the letter by NOCIRC SA. The Committee stated that it was unethical and illegal to perform circumcision on infant boys in this instance. In particular, the Committee expressed serious concern that not enough scientifically-based evidence was available to confirm that circumcisions prevented HIV contraction and that the public at large was influenced by incorrect and misrepresented information. The Committee reiterated its view that it did not support circumcision to prevent HIV transmission. We trust that you will find this in order.

Yours faithfully
Ms Ulundi Behrtel
Head: Human Rights, Law & Ethics unit
Obo Chairperson: Human Rights, Law & Ethics Committee
SA Medical Association


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Study finds no association between HPV risk and lack of circumcision

A large-scale study has found no association between circumcision status and susceptibility to infections with human papilloma virus (HPV), a group of wart viruses responsible for genital herpes and implicated in the generation of cervical and other genital cancers. The study involved 3463 heterosexual men from 71 sites in 18 countries in Africa, Asia-Pacific, Europe, Latin America, and North America. Although there have been claims that circumcision may reduce the risk of infection with HPV, this study was unable to confirm such findings.

Abstract

Background. We examined the baseline prevalence of penile, scrotal, and perineal/perianal human papillomavirus (HPV) in heterosexual men (HM). We also evaluated baseline characteristics of HM to assess factors associated with prevalent HPV detection.

Methods. We tested serum samples from 3463 HM aged 16–24 years with 1–5 lifetime female sexual partners for antibodies to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18. We collected baseline swab specimens for the detection of DNA of HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 59 from 3 areas: penile, scrotal, and perineal/perianal. Risk factors for prevalent HPV DNA detection were evaluated.

Results. The prevalence of any tested HPV type was 18.7% at the penis, 13.1% at the scrotum, 7.9% at the perineal/perianal region, and 21.0% at any site. Having >3 lifetime female sexual partners had the greatest impact on HPV prevalence: odds ratio (OR) 3.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1–4.9) for HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18; and OR 4.5 (95% CI 3.3–6.1) for all HPV types tested. HPV DNA detection was highest in Africa. Neither condom usage nor circumcision was associated with HPV DNA prevalence.

Conclusion. Genital-HPV DNA detection is common in young, sexually active HM. We found HPV to be most prevalent in African men and least prevalent in men from the Asia-Pacific region. Increased numbers of sexual partners was an important risk factor for HPV DNA prevalence.

Source: Eftyhia Vardas et al. External Genital Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Associated Factors Among Heterosexual Men on 5 Continents. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2011:203 (January 2011) 58-65




Circumcision and HIV prevention: New study slams flaws in African clinical trials

A new review of those three famous Randomised Controlled Trials (RCT) of circumcision in Africa slams the claim that they prove that circumcision significantly reduces the risk of men contracting HIV/AIDS during unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected female partner. While the risk reduction achieved by circumcision has commonly been reported as “60 per cent”, the paper points out that this is merely relative risk, and that the absolute risk reduction is much lower - a miserable 1.3 per cent. Even the relative risk reduction (49 per cent) appears to have been exaggerated. Just as seriously, there appears to have been a 60 per cent relative increase in the risk of male to female HIV transmission when the male partner is circumcised. The authors of the paper argue that circumcision is still unproven as an effective means of HIV prevention, and that - given the expense, the risk of complications, the damage to sexual function and the danger of human rights and ethical abuses - it should not be deployed on the massive scale that we are witnessing.

The review, in the December 2011 edition of the Journal of Law and Medicine, is by independent research consultant, Dr Gregory J Boyle, PhD, DSc, and George Hill, a consultant with the American ethical medicine group, Doctors Opposing Circumcision.

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There are no health benefits to circumcision..... Don't you think your foreskin is there for a reason? It's there to protect you so cutting it off is retarded unless you have some medical reason to do so. As long as you clean yourself properly you should have no problem.

As for the original question i don't think its child abuse but just unnecessary in most cases.
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Dspokes wrote:

There are no health benefits to circumcision..... Don't you think your foreskin is there for a reason?


Yes, and let's not cut our fingernails- after all, isn't there a reason why it grows long?

Or the tumour, after all, if nature wanted us not to have cancerous growths, she would have made us immune to them.


It's there to protect you so cutting it off is retarded unless you have some medical reason to do so. As long as you clean yourself properly you should have no problem.

As for the original question i don't think its child abuse but just unnecessary in most cases.


What does it protect us against?

But I wholeheartedly agree with the sentiment that it isn't child abuse.

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shinto-male wrote:



Circumcision not recommended for urinary tract infection

A study in the latest (April 2012) issue of the Australian Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health reviews the treatment and prevention options for urinary tract infections (UTI) in children. It finds that a UTI occurs in approximately 8% of girls and 2% of boys by 7 years of age, and outlines the best treatment options, depending on the nature of the infection and whether it recurs. The study does not recommend circumcision except in the few cases where recurrent episodes have failed to respond to medical (mainly antibiotic) treatment. The study notes that “approximately 20% of children who have had one UTI experience a symptomatic recurrence. Preventing UTI recurrence would avoid further episodes of illness, discomfort and family stress. The likelihood that preventing UTI would prevent clinically important kidney damage is unknown but likely to be very low, given the very low risk of clinically important kidney damage following UTI, and the modest benefit of prophylactic interventions.

“The Royal Australasian College of Physicians’ policy position is that circumcision is not indicated as primary prevention. It could be estimated that between 110 and 140 circumcisions are required to prevent one UTI, while major complications occur in around 2%.** However, circumcision should be considered in boys with a high risk of recurrent febrile infection, that is boys with previous UTIs and/or high-grade VUR,*** where the number needed to treat is between 4 and 11, so that the benefits outweigh the risk of adverse effects.”

Summary

Circumcision is not recommended after first UTI
Consider circumcision in boys with recurrent UTI

Source: Gabrielle J Williams, Elisabeth H Hodson, David Isaacs and Jonathan C Craig, Diagnosis and management of urinary tract infection in children. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 48, April 2012, 296-301


As I know you have a certain hatred of all things American, here is something from the United Kingdom.





http://adc.bmj.com/content/90/8/853.full
...
Conclusions: Circumcision reduces the risk of UTI. Given a risk in normal boys of about 1%, the number-needed-to-treat to prevent one UTI is 111. In boys with recurrent UTI or high grade vesicoureteric reflux, the risk of UTI recurrence is 10% and 30% and the numbers-needed-to-treat are 11 and 4, respectively. Haemorrhage and infection are the commonest complications of circumcision, occurring at rate of about 2%. Assuming equal utility of benefits and harms, net clinical benefit is likely only in boys at high risk of UTI.





Circumcised men at equal risk of HPV infection

A large-scale study at the University of Washington has found no difference in the incidence of HPV infection between circumcised and uncircumcised male college students. HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) is a large group of viruses that may cause genital warts, and are implicated in the genesis of genital cancers. HPV is very common among the sexually active population. but most people never show any symptoms. The risk factors for the development of cancer have been shown to be numerous different sexual partners and smoking. The new study confirmed previous research which showed that the location of the virus differed between circumcised and uncircumcised men: circumcised men tend to carry the virus on the shaft skin of the penis, while intact men are more likely to carry it on the glans. The study also also found that circumcised men have more sexual partners. In a previous study the researchers found found that for college females the circumcision status of their partner was NOT a risk factor for HPV infection in women. The authors comment that the African Random Clinical Trials, which seemed to show that uncircumcised men were more likely to carry the HPV virus, were seriously flawed because they took samples only from the glans (not from the shaft skin, where the virus is concentrated in the circumcised).


ABSTRACT

Background: The role of circumcision in male HPV acquisition is not clear.

Methods: Male university students (aged 18–20 years) were recruited from 2003 to 2009 and followed up triannually. Shaft/scrotum, glans, and urine samples were tested for 37  human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes. Cox proportional hazards methods were used to evaluate the association between circumcision and HPV acquisition. Logistic regression was used to assess whether the number of genital sites infected at incident HPV detection or site of incident detection varied by circumcision status.

Results: In 477 men, rates of acquiring clinically relevant HPV types (high-risk types plus types 6 and 11) did not differ significantly by circumcision status (hazard ratio for uncircumcised relative to circumcised subjects: 0.9 [95% confidence interval{CI}: 0.7–1.2]). However, compared with circumcised men, uncircumcised men were 10.1 (95% CI: 2.9 –35.6) times more likely to have the same HPV type detected in all 3 genital specimens than in a single genital specimen and were 2.7 (95% CI: 1.6–4.5) times more likely to have an HPV-positive urine or glans specimen at first detection.

Conclusion: We found no differences by circumcision status in overall HPV acquisition or in number of HPV types acquired. Findings held for all clinically relevant HPV types, as well as for the subgroups of high-risk types, high-risk -9 types, and HPV-16. This observation is consistent with findings from other longitudinal studies.

Bottom line: Circumcision does not lower the risk of infection with Human Papilloma Virus. People who claim that uncircumcised men are more likely to develop or communicate genital cancers are ignoring the facts and spreading misleading information.

Source: Kelley Van Buskirk et al, Circumcision and Acquisition of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Young Men, Sexually Transmitted Diseases 38 (12), December 2011.

Journal homepage: http://journals.lww.com/stdjournal/pages/default.aspx

Abstract available at journal - Published ahead of print: http://journals.lww.com/stdjournal/toc/publishahead


This study by the University of Hawai'i begs to differ.



http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2596734/
Conclusion

Uncircumcised men have an increased risk of HPV infection, including with oncogenic HPV, specifically localized to the glans/corona, possibly because of its proximity to the foreskin, which may be particularly vulnerable to infection.




“Unethical and illegal”: South African Medical association rejects circumcision of infants

In a letter dated 23 June 2011, the South African Medical Association has stated that it does not support the practice of circumcision of infants as a means of preventing HIV transmission and that it considers circumcision of infants to be both unethical and illegal. The letter was signed by Ms Ulundi Behrtel, Chairperson of the Human Rights, Law and Ethics Committee. The full text of the letter follows:

23 June 2011
Mr Dean Ferris, Co-Director
National Organisation of Circumcision Information Resource Centre, South Africa

Dear Mr Ferris

CIRCUMCISION OF BABIES FOR PROPOSED HIV PREVENTION

We refer to the above matter and your email correspondence of 16 February 2011. The matter was discussed by the members of the Human Rights, Law & Ethics Committee at their previous meeting and they agreed with the content of the letter by NOCIRC SA. The Committee stated that it was unethical and illegal to perform circumcision on infant boys in this instance. In particular, the Committee expressed serious concern that not enough scientifically-based evidence was available to confirm that circumcisions prevented HIV contraction and that the public at large was influenced by incorrect and misrepresented information. The Committee reiterated its view that it did not support circumcision to prevent HIV transmission. We trust that you will find this in order.

Yours faithfully
Ms Ulundi Behrtel
Head: Human Rights, Law & Ethics unit
Obo Chairperson: Human Rights, Law & Ethics Committee
SA Medical Association





So, what does this show but that the South African Medical Association doesn't support infant circumcision as a mean of preventing HIV?
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shinto-male wrote:

Study finds no association between HPV risk and lack of circumcision

A large-scale study has found no association between circumcision status and susceptibility to infections with human papilloma virus (HPV), a group of wart viruses responsible for genital herpes and implicated in the generation of cervical and other genital cancers. The study involved 3463 heterosexual men from 71 sites in 18 countries in Africa, Asia-Pacific, Europe, Latin America, and North America. Although there have been claims that circumcision may reduce the risk of infection with HPV, this study was unable to confirm such findings.

Abstract

Background. We examined the baseline prevalence of penile, scrotal, and perineal/perianal human papillomavirus (HPV) in heterosexual men (HM). We also evaluated baseline characteristics of HM to assess factors associated with prevalent HPV detection.

Methods. We tested serum samples from 3463 HM aged 16–24 years with 1–5 lifetime female sexual partners for antibodies to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18. We collected baseline swab specimens for the detection of DNA of HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 59 from 3 areas: penile, scrotal, and perineal/perianal. Risk factors for prevalent HPV DNA detection were evaluated.

Results. The prevalence of any tested HPV type was 18.7% at the penis, 13.1% at the scrotum, 7.9% at the perineal/perianal region, and 21.0% at any site. Having >3 lifetime female sexual partners had the greatest impact on HPV prevalence: odds ratio (OR) 3.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1–4.9) for HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18; and OR 4.5 (95% CI 3.3–6.1) for all HPV types tested. HPV DNA detection was highest in Africa. Neither condom usage nor circumcision was associated with HPV DNA prevalence.

Conclusion. Genital-HPV DNA detection is common in young, sexually active HM. We found HPV to be most prevalent in African men and least prevalent in men from the Asia-Pacific region. Increased numbers of sexual partners was an important risk factor for HPV DNA prevalence.

Source: Eftyhia Vardas et al. External Genital Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Associated Factors Among Heterosexual Men on 5 Continents. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2011:203 (January 2011) 58-65




http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/14/7/1710.full.pdf
In conclusion, our study confirms that high-risk sexual behavior, including number of sexual partners and anal intercourse, increases the risk of HPV infection in males, whereas circumcision may lower the risk of persistence. These results underline the importance of HPV infection in males as a public health concern that should be further addressed. Future research on HPV infection in men should focus on longer follow-up and shorter time intervals for evaluating multiple HPV types in several genital sites. To fully understand the dynamics of HPV infection, immune response and viral load quantification should also be studied.






Circumcision and HIV prevention: New study slams flaws in African clinical trials

A new review of those three famous Randomised Controlled Trials (RCT) of circumcision in Africa slams the claim that they prove that circumcision significantly reduces the risk of men contracting HIV/AIDS during unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected female partner. While the risk reduction achieved by circumcision has commonly been reported as “60 per cent”, the paper points out that this is merely relative risk, and that the absolute risk reduction is much lower - a miserable 1.3 per cent. Even the relative risk reduction (49 per cent) appears to have been exaggerated. Just as seriously, there appears to have been a 60 per cent relative increase in the risk of male to female HIV transmission when the male partner is circumcised. The authors of the paper argue that circumcision is still unproven as an effective means of HIV prevention, and that - given the expense, the risk of complications, the damage to sexual function and the danger of human rights and ethical abuses - it should not be deployed on the massive scale that we are witnessing.

The review, in the December 2011 edition of the Journal of Law and Medicine, is by independent research consultant, Dr Gregory J Boyle, PhD, DSc, and George Hill, a consultant with the American ethical medicine group, Doctors Opposing Circumcision.




Are you sure the study is flawed, or that they want it to be flawed? After all, the name of their group is 'Doctors Opposing Circumcision', hardly an impartial group, which, I may add, makes them more suspect than, say, the WHO.
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longfenglim wrote:


shinto-male wrote:

circumcision is fine if it used as a last resort for medical reasons








Rising incidence of HIV and syphilis in Israel

A sharply rising incidence of HIV, syphilis and other sexually transmitted infections in Israel is worrying medical authorities and casting further doubt on claims that circumcision provides “strong” protection against such diseases. Two articles and an editorial in the March 2012 edition of the Israeli Medical Association Journal describe a “resurgence” of syphilis and HIV, especially among men who have sex with men in Tel Aviv, and warn of the risk of an “epidemic” affecting the heterosexual population. The studies are unsure of the reasons for the resurgence, but lay the principal blame on the rise of unprotected sex, as a result of treatment optimism, condom fatigue and the use of “disinhibiting substances”, such as alcohol and other drugs. They also mention the effects of big city life, which nurtures the growth of sexual sub-cultures and wide-ranging sexual networks, with increased opportunities for taking multiple sexual partners and fast, anonymous sexual encounters.

What is particularly significant about these explanations is the absence of any reference to circumcision. Researchers did record the circumcision status of clients at one STD clinic, but found no statistically significant correlation between lack of circumcision and greater susceptibility to venereal infections. These conclusions certainly provide no support for the contention of circumcision advocates, such as Brian Morris and buddies, that universal and ideally compulsory circumcision of infants is necessary to prevent epidemics of STIs in Australia. For obvious cultural reasons, Israel already has universal, semi-compulsory circumcision of infants, and it is still experiencing an alarming increase in the incidence of HIV, syphilis and other STIs. It is thus clear that behavioural factors, such as numerous sexual partners and failure to practise safe sex, are far more important than anatomy in explaining the rise of these health problems. In other words, lay off the foreskins of innocent children, and worry about the behavioural choices of randy adults!

Source: Itzchak Levy, The Resurgence, in Israel, of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Syphilis among Men Having Sex with Men, Israeli Medical Association Journal 14, March 2012, 166-167





You are focusing only on STDs, you silly sot, when it has been already demonstrated that there are other medical benefits to Circumcision. If only you would stop focusing on other people's penises and mind your own.


I shall now object to your statements more fully. First, if you Canadians are anything like us Americans, then you would have taken an sexual education class in High School, learning, in between picketts by over-zealous Christians and Shintos, that STDs are a umbrella term for various diseases that are contracted through sexual contact. That includes things like Pubic Lice, Scrabies, Syphillis, Hepatitis B, Amoebiasis, and all that, which are spread variously and in different ways. Therefore, it would be absurd to lump STD into one whole, and then say 'look, circumcision is ineffective against STDs', a man could be circumcised and get the crabs- which is a think that haunts the pubic hair rather than on the penis itself.

You cite Israel as an example of a place where, because people are either Jews and Mahometans, they are more than likely circumcised. Of course, any basic sexual education class would tell us that if someone is diseased, with either Syphilis or HIV, then having sex with them, no matter how protected you are, will increase you likelihood of contracting Syphilis or HIV. Circumcision, however, have already been shown to be an effective preventative against HIV, though the judgment is still out for Syphilis, Herpes, etc. But, as I said, Circumcision is not limited to the sexual, and it does provide future protection against various diseases. So, you should fuck off and let the parents decide what they want to do with their child's foreskin.




God bless America, My Home Sweet Home




http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2653870/?tool=pmcentrez
This first systematic review of male circumcision and ulcerative STI strongly indicates that circumcised men are at lower risk of chancroid and syphilis. There is less association with HSV‐2. Potential male circumcision interventions to reduce HIV in high risk populations may provide additional benefit by protecting against other STI.
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don't tell me to fuck off i will not be talked to in that tone of voice. i don't take orders from you or anybody else



No protection to men who have sex with men in London

Circumcision Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in London, United Kingdom: An Unlikely Strategy for HIV Prevention

Abstract

Male circumcision is unlikely to be a workable HIV prevention strategy among London MSM, the current study suggests. The team undertook the research to explore attitudes about circumcision among MSM in London and to assess the feasibility of conducting research on circumcision and HIV prevention among these men. In May and June 2008, a convenience sample of MSM visiting gyms in central London completed a confidential, self-administered questionnaire. The information collected included demographic characteristics, self-reported HIV status, sexual behavior, circumcision status, attitudes about circumcision, and willingness to take part in research on circumcision and HIV prevention. Among the 653 participants, 29 percent reported they were circumcised. HIV prevalence among the MSM was 23.3 percent and did not differ significantly between circumcised (18.6 percent) and uncircumcised (25.2 percent) men (adjusted odds ratio=0.79; 95 percent confidence interval: 0.50-1.26). The proportion of participants reporting unprotected anal intercourse in the past three months was similar in the circumcised (38.8 percent) and uncircumcised (36.7 percent) groups (AOR=1.06; 95 percent CI: 0.72-1.55). The uncircumcised MSM were [much] less likely to think there were benefits to being circumcised compared to the circumcised men (31.2 percent vs. 65.4 percent, P<0.001). Just 10.3 percent of the uncircumcised men indicated a willingness to take part in research on circumcision as a strategy to prevent HIV transmission.

“Most uncircumcised MSM in this London survey were unwilling to participate in research on circumcision and HIV prevention,” the authors concluded. “Only a minority of uncircumcised men thought that there were benefits of circumcision. It is unlikely that circumcision would be a feasible strategy for HIV prevention among MSM in London.”

Source http://www.stdjournal.com Date of Publication 10//2011

Author

Alicia C. Thornton; Samuel Lattimore; Valerie Delpech; Helen A. Weiss; Jonathan Elford



Circumcision as a risk of HIV transmission

The Bagisu people of Eastern Uganda circumcise boys aged 12-18 years. The cultural practices associated with circumcision are a risk to HIV transmission. HIV transmission awareness programmes have been running in the local media but the message is mainly perceived by urban, literate people. The researchers found it is hard to change the attitude of the Bagisu towards their cultural circumcision practices despite the risks.

A. Kataami Moiti. Joint Clinical Research Centre, Kampala, Uganda
The Importance of education in addressing risk factors associated with cultural circumcision practices among Bagisu community, Uganda
Poster at the XV AIDS Conference in Bangkok, July 2004 [ThPeC7544]



WebmedCentral EPIDEMIOLOGY 2011;2(9):WMC002206

Scarification and Male Circumcision Associated with HIV Infection in Mozambican Children and Youth

By Dr. Devon D Brewer

Abstract

Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, significant numbers of children with seronegative mothers are HIV infected. Similarly, substantial proportions of African youth who have not had sex are infected with HIV. These findings imply that some African children and youth acquire HIV through blood exposures in unhygienic healthcare, cosmetic care, and rituals. In prior research, male and female Kenyan, Lesothoan, and Tanzanian adolescents and virgins who were circumcised were more likely to be infected with HIV than their uncircumcised counterparts.

Methods: I examined the association between male circumcision, scarification, and HIV infection in Mozambican children and youth with data from the 2009 Mozambique AIDS Indicator Survey. I excluded from analysis children under age 12 who had HIV seropositive biological mothers. I coded children and youth as exposed to circumcision or scarification only if it had occurred within the prior 10 years.

Results: Circumcised and scarified children and youth were two to three times more likely to be infected with HIV than children and youth who had not been circumcised or scarified, respectively. Circumcision and scarification were each associated with HIV infection for both virgins and sexually experienced youth. Males circumcised by medical doctors were almost as likely to be infected as those circumcised by traditional circumcisers. Circumcision and scarification were also independently associated with HIV infection in males.

Conclusions: To determine modes of HIV transmission with confidence, researchers must employ more rigorous research designs than have been used to date in sub-Saharan Africa. In the meantime, Mozambicans and other Africans should be warned about all risks of blood-borne HIV transmission, including scarification and medical and traditional circumcision, and informed about how these risks can be avoided.

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don't tell me to fuck off i will not be talked to in that tone of voice. i don't take orders from you or anybody else


I'm telling you to fuck off for your own good- you are making yourself ridiculous, and it is best you fuck off before this descend any further- I can't imagine how much lower it can get, but you have a knack for making what is already low even lower. It is a waste of my time, and probably of yours, seeing as you can provide no strong argument against anything I have posited.



No protection to men who have sex with men in London

Circumcision Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in London, United Kingdom: An Unlikely Strategy for HIV Prevention

Abstract

Male circumcision is unlikely to be a workable HIV prevention strategy among London MSM, the current study suggests. The team undertook the research to explore attitudes about circumcision among MSM in London and to assess the feasibility of conducting research on circumcision and HIV prevention among these men. In May and June 2008, a convenience sample of MSM visiting gyms in central London completed a confidential, self-administered questionnaire. The information collected included demographic characteristics, self-reported HIV status, sexual behavior, circumcision status, attitudes about circumcision, and willingness to take part in research on circumcision and HIV prevention. Among the 653 participants, 29 percent reported they were circumcised. HIV prevalence among the MSM was 23.3 percent and did not differ significantly between circumcised (18.6 percent) and uncircumcised (25.2 percent) men (adjusted odds ratio=0.79; 95 percent confidence interval: 0.50-1.26). The proportion of participants reporting unprotected anal intercourse in the past three months was similar in the circumcised (38.8 percent) and uncircumcised (36.7 percent) groups (AOR=1.06; 95 percent CI: 0.72-1.55). The uncircumcised MSM were [much] less likely to think there were benefits to being circumcised compared to the circumcised men (31.2 percent vs. 65.4 percent, P<0.001). Just 10.3 percent of the uncircumcised men indicated a willingness to take part in research on circumcision as a strategy to prevent HIV transmission.

“Most uncircumcised MSM in this London survey were unwilling to participate in research on circumcision and HIV prevention,” the authors concluded. “Only a minority of uncircumcised men thought that there were benefits of circumcision. It is unlikely that circumcision would be a feasible strategy for HIV prevention among MSM in London.”

Source http://www.stdjournal.com Date of Publication 10//2011


Yes, I have already said that there is no medical evidence that links circumcision with HIV among MSM (Men who have Sex with Men). There is no dispute there.


Author

Alicia C. Thornton; Samuel Lattimore; Valerie Delpech; Helen A. Weiss; Jonathan Elford



Circumcision as a risk of HIV transmission

The Bagisu people of Eastern Uganda circumcise boys aged 12-18 years. The cultural practices associated with circumcision are a risk to HIV transmission. HIV transmission awareness programmes have been running in the local media but the message is mainly perceived by urban, literate people. The researchers found it is hard to change the attitude of the Bagisu towards their cultural circumcision practices despite the risks.

A. Kataami Moiti. Joint Clinical Research Centre, Kampala, Uganda
The Importance of education in addressing risk factors associated with cultural circumcision practices among Bagisu community, Uganda
Poster at the XV AIDS Conference in Bangkok, July 2004 [ThPeC7544]



WebmedCentral EPIDEMIOLOGY 2011;2(9):WMC002206

Scarification and Male Circumcision Associated with HIV Infection in Mozambican Children and Youth

By Dr. Devon D Brewer

Abstract

Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, significant numbers of children with seronegative mothers are HIV infected. Similarly, substantial proportions of African youth who have not had sex are infected with HIV. These findings imply that some African children and youth acquire HIV through blood exposures in unhygienic healthcare, cosmetic care, and rituals. In prior research, male and female Kenyan, Lesothoan, and Tanzanian adolescents and virgins who were circumcised were more likely to be infected with HIV than their uncircumcised counterparts.

Methods: I examined the association between male circumcision, scarification, and HIV infection in Mozambican children and youth with data from the 2009 Mozambique AIDS Indicator Survey. I excluded from analysis children under age 12 who had HIV seropositive biological mothers. I coded children and youth as exposed to circumcision or scarification only if it had occurred within the prior 10 years.

Results: Circumcised and scarified children and youth were two to three times more likely to be infected with HIV than children and youth who had not been circumcised or scarified, respectively. Circumcision and scarification were each associated with HIV infection for both virgins and sexually experienced youth. Males circumcised by medical doctors were almost as likely to be infected as those circumcised by traditional circumcisers. Circumcision and scarification were also independently associated with HIV infection in males.

Conclusions: To determine modes of HIV transmission with confidence, researchers must employ more rigorous research designs than have been used to date in sub-Saharan Africa. In the meantime, Mozambicans and other Africans should be warned about all risks of blood-borne HIV transmission, including scarification and medical and traditional circumcision, and informed about how these risks can be avoided.



http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22452415
http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/faculty/detels/epi227/reader/Morris_AIDSCare_2012.pdf
You should read through this- there is something for everything you propose.
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