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30 / M / Cleveland,OH,USA
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Posted 12/5/12

EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:

"Alright, i also have a video link depicting various kinds of wild cat species, including some you may have never heard of. Please watch"
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x5HwbM-EqLQ


Maybe teacher



" well, continuing on, let's delve into the first few species, shall we? We will first break down the subfamily Pantherinae, and the Genus Panthera, in which there exist four species. First up, the famous ruler of all cats, the lion. Can anyone tell me the scientific name of the lion? anyone?"


Bella: Sorry i don't know * hoping class will be over soon so i can see edward *
say that in my head


(glances at clock) "Alright, guys, i guess class is dismissed. Your assignment for tomorrow is to review each of the 41 species of cat, decide which is your favorite, and post a video of said cat species by this time tomorrow. For all of our absent friends, if you see them, please let them know about the assignment, and i look forward to seeing which of you bright young minds will be joining me next period for Spanish 101. That's all, you may leave at your leisure. Thank you."



Bella: Glad that class is finally over and now i finally get to see Edward and he is waiting for outside of class . Gets up from my seat and takes everything with me and joins Edward and he was happy to see me and we walked outside .


Well, that went just great. Im gonna be fired in a week at this rate As the professor took a drag on his cigarette, He pulled out the IPod and cranked it. He stepped outta the A20 room and headed toward the Cultures wing. it was mid morning and the sun was already blazing in the sky, warming the hallways with its rays. How can I get them to listen? Maybe it was the subject. Spanish and Central American Culture would, should get better responses. He just hoped he didnt have to fail his whole class..he stepped into a room with scale-built pyramids in the Mayan style, frescoes adorning the walls, brilliant turquoises, reds, deep greens,and white. the imposing stone carvings of serpents heads and man-jaguars littered the room, while in the very center was a huge bonfire, aired out by a skylighted roof. It was here he lit another smoke and waited silently for his class to file in, eager for another opportunity to give them valuable knowledge..

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97969 cr points
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26 / F / With Edward and I...
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Posted 12/5/12

sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:

"Alright, i also have a video link depicting various kinds of wild cat species, including some you may have never heard of. Please watch"
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x5HwbM-EqLQ


Maybe teacher



" well, continuing on, let's delve into the first few species, shall we? We will first break down the subfamily Pantherinae, and the Genus Panthera, in which there exist four species. First up, the famous ruler of all cats, the lion. Can anyone tell me the scientific name of the lion? anyone?"


Bella: Sorry i don't know * hoping class will be over soon so i can see edward *
say that in my head


(glances at clock) "Alright, guys, i guess class is dismissed. Your assignment for tomorrow is to review each of the 41 species of cat, decide which is your favorite, and post a video of said cat species by this time tomorrow. For all of our absent friends, if you see them, please let them know about the assignment, and i look forward to seeing which of you bright young minds will be joining me next period for Spanish 101. That's all, you may leave at your leisure. Thank you."



Bella: Glad that class is finally over and now i finally get to see Edward and he is waiting for outside of class . Gets up from my seat and takes everything with me and joins Edward and he was happy to see me and we walked outside .


Well, that went just great. Im gonna be fired in a week at this rate As the professor took a drag on his cigarette, He pulled out the IPod and cranked it. He stepped outta the A20 room and headed toward the Cultures wing. it was mid morning and the sun was already blazing in the sky, warming the hallways with its rays. How can I get them to listen? Maybe it was the subject. Spanish and Central American Culture would, should get better responses. He just hoped he didnt have to fail his whole class..he stepped into a room with scale-built pyramids in the Mayan style, frescoes adorning the walls, brilliant turquoises, reds, deep greens,and white. the imposing stone carvings of serpents heads and man-jaguars littered the room, while in the very center was a huge bonfire, aired out by a skylighted roof. It was here he lit another smoke and waited silently for his class to file in, eager for another opportunity to give them valuable knowledge..



Edward and i are done for the day so he drives me home .
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Posted 12/8/12
Central American Studies 134- a class for history buffs. It was originally Central American Tongues, but the cultural studies eventually took over the language and the class name was changed. In the Bonfire Room,professor Klima waited for all the students to file in, stamping out his cigarette and setting up class behind the main desk. I hope this goes better than Big Cat Studies did, I cant afford to be gettin' fired after two days..
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97969 cr points
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Posted 12/8/12

sky_maverick wrote:

Central American Studies 134- a class for history buffs. It was originally Central American Tongues, but the cultural studies eventually took over the language and the class name was changed. In the Bonfire Room,professor Klima waited for all the students to file in, stamping out his cigarette and setting up class behind the main desk. I hope this goes better than Big Cat Studies did, I cant afford to be gettin' fired after two days..


School is starting - walks in -
2955 cr points
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30 / M / Cleveland,OH,USA
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Posted 12/8/12

EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:

Central American Studies 134- a class for history buffs. It was originally Central American Tongues, but the cultural studies eventually took over the language and the class name was changed. In the Bonfire Room,professor Klima waited for all the students to file in, stamping out his cigarette and setting up class behind the main desk. I hope this goes better than Big Cat Studies did, I cant afford to be gettin' fired after two days..


School is starting - walks in -


"Alright, there will be no roll call as this is an subelective, and attendance is not required, simply completion of assignments. Those of you who are here and following, please, i encourage you to participate as it is one third of your grade aside from assignments and exams, now, for those of you who have already had some knowledge of my teaching method in Big Cat Studies, you will know that your first assignment is indeed tonight and there will be no grace periods for late/incomplete work. Ok then, all frankness aside, my name is Mr. Klima and welcome to Central American Studies. I will begin by presenting some notes from our first lesson. Please copy."

The Olmec were the first major civilization in Mexico. They lived in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, in the modern-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco.

The Olmec flourished during Mesoamerica's Formative period, dating roughly from as early as 1500 BCE to about 400 BCE. Pre-Olmec cultures had flourished in the area since about 2500 BCE, but by 1600-1500 BCE Early Olmec culture had emerged centered around the San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán site near the coast in southeast Veracruz.[1] They were the first Mesoamerican civilization and laid many of the foundations for the civilizations that followed.[2] Among other "firsts", the Olmec appeared to practice ritual bloodletting and played the Mesoamerican ballgame, hallmarks of nearly all subsequent Mesoamerican societies.

The most familiar aspect of the Olmecs is their artwork, particularly the aptly named "colossal heads".[3] The Olmec civilization was first defined through artifacts which collectors purchased on the pre-Columbian art market in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Olmec artworks are considered among ancient America's most striking.[4]




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97969 cr points
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26 / F / With Edward and I...
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Posted 12/8/12

sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:

Central American Studies 134- a class for history buffs. It was originally Central American Tongues, but the cultural studies eventually took over the language and the class name was changed. In the Bonfire Room,professor Klima waited for all the students to file in, stamping out his cigarette and setting up class behind the main desk. I hope this goes better than Big Cat Studies did, I cant afford to be gettin' fired after two days..


School is starting - walks in -


"Alright, there will be no roll call as this is an subelective, and attendance is not required, simply completion of assignments. Those of you who are here and following, please, i encourage you to participate as it is one third of your grade aside from assignments and exams, now, for those of you who have already had some knowledge of my teaching method in Big Cat Studies, you will know that your first assignment is indeed tonight and there will be no grace periods for late/incomplete work. Ok then, all frankness aside, my name is Mr. Klima and welcome to Central American Studies. I will begin by presenting some notes from our first lesson. Please copy."

The Olmec were the first major civilization in Mexico. They lived in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, in the modern-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco.

The Olmec flourished during Mesoamerica's Formative period, dating roughly from as early as 1500 BCE to about 400 BCE. Pre-Olmec cultures had flourished in the area since about 2500 BCE, but by 1600-1500 BCE Early Olmec culture had emerged centered around the San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán site near the coast in southeast Veracruz.[1] They were the first Mesoamerican civilization and laid many of the foundations for the civilizations that followed.[2] Among other "firsts", the Olmec appeared to practice ritual bloodletting and played the Mesoamerican ballgame, hallmarks of nearly all subsequent Mesoamerican societies.

The most familiar aspect of the Olmecs is their artwork, particularly the aptly named "colossal heads".[3] The Olmec civilization was first defined through artifacts which collectors purchased on the pre-Columbian art market in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Olmec artworks are considered among ancient America's most striking.[4]






copy it down and sits down
watch this
http://youtu.be/ARQkj39GJ6A
2955 cr points
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30 / M / Cleveland,OH,USA
Offline
Posted 12/8/12

EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:

Central American Studies 134- a class for history buffs. It was originally Central American Tongues, but the cultural studies eventually took over the language and the class name was changed. In the Bonfire Room,professor Klima waited for all the students to file in, stamping out his cigarette and setting up class behind the main desk. I hope this goes better than Big Cat Studies did, I cant afford to be gettin' fired after two days..


School is starting - walks in -


"Alright, there will be no roll call as this is an subelective, and attendance is not required, simply completion of assignments. Those of you who are here and following, please, i encourage you to participate as it is one third of your grade aside from assignments and exams, now, for those of you who have already had some knowledge of my teaching method in Big Cat Studies, you will know that your first assignment is indeed tonight and there will be no grace periods for late/incomplete work. Ok then, all frankness aside, my name is Mr. Klima and welcome to Central American Studies. I will begin by presenting some notes from our first lesson. Please copy."

The Olmec were the first major civilization in Mexico. They lived in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, in the modern-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco.

The Olmec flourished during Mesoamerica's Formative period, dating roughly from as early as 1500 BCE to about 400 BCE. Pre-Olmec cultures had flourished in the area since about 2500 BCE, but by 1600-1500 BCE Early Olmec culture had emerged centered around the San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán site near the coast in southeast Veracruz.[1] They were the first Mesoamerican civilization and laid many of the foundations for the civilizations that followed.[2] Among other "firsts", the Olmec appeared to practice ritual bloodletting and played the Mesoamerican ballgame, hallmarks of nearly all subsequent Mesoamerican societies.

The most familiar aspect of the Olmecs is their artwork, particularly the aptly named "colossal heads".[3] The Olmec civilization was first defined through artifacts which collectors purchased on the pre-Columbian art market in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Olmec artworks are considered among ancient America's most striking.[4]






copy it down and sits down
watch this
http://youtu.be/ARQkj39GJ6A


The beginnings of Olmec civilization have traditionally been placed between 1400 and 1200 BCE. Recent finds of Olmec remains ritually deposited at El Manati shrine (near San Lorenzo) moved this back to "at least" 1600-1500 BCE.[8] It seems that the Olmec had their roots in early farming cultures of Tabasco, which began between 5100 BCE and 4600 BCE. These shared the same basic food crops and technologies of the later Olmec civilization.[9]

What is today called Olmec first appeared fully within the city of San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán, where distinctive Olmec features occurred around 1400 BCE. The rise of civilization was assisted by the local ecology of well-watered alluvial soil, as well as by the transportation network provided by the Coatzacoalcos River basin. This environment may be compared to that of other ancient centers of civilization: the Nile, Indus, and Yellow River valleys, and Mesopotamia. This highly productive environment encouraged a densely concentrated population, which in turn triggered the rise of an elite class.[10] The elite class created the demand for the production of the symbolic and sophisticated luxury artifacts that define Olmec culture.[11] Many of these luxury artifacts were made from materials such as jade, obsidian and magnetite, which came from distant locations and suggest that early Olmec elites had access to an extensive trading network in Mesoamerica. The source of the most valued jade, for example, is found in the Motagua River valley in eastern Guatemala,[12] and Olmec obsidian has been traced to sources in the Guatemala highlands, such as El Chayal and San Martín Jilotepeque, or in Puebla,[13] distances ranging from 200 to 400 km away (120–250 miles away), respectively.[14]


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97969 cr points
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26 / F / With Edward and I...
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Posted 12/8/12

sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:

Central American Studies 134- a class for history buffs. It was originally Central American Tongues, but the cultural studies eventually took over the language and the class name was changed. In the Bonfire Room,professor Klima waited for all the students to file in, stamping out his cigarette and setting up class behind the main desk. I hope this goes better than Big Cat Studies did, I cant afford to be gettin' fired after two days..


School is starting - walks in -


"Alright, there will be no roll call as this is an subelective, and attendance is not required, simply completion of assignments. Those of you who are here and following, please, i encourage you to participate as it is one third of your grade aside from assignments and exams, now, for those of you who have already had some knowledge of my teaching method in Big Cat Studies, you will know that your first assignment is indeed tonight and there will be no grace periods for late/incomplete work. Ok then, all frankness aside, my name is Mr. Klima and welcome to Central American Studies. I will begin by presenting some notes from our first lesson. Please copy."

The Olmec were the first major civilization in Mexico. They lived in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, in the modern-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco.

The Olmec flourished during Mesoamerica's Formative period, dating roughly from as early as 1500 BCE to about 400 BCE. Pre-Olmec cultures had flourished in the area since about 2500 BCE, but by 1600-1500 BCE Early Olmec culture had emerged centered around the San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán site near the coast in southeast Veracruz.[1] They were the first Mesoamerican civilization and laid many of the foundations for the civilizations that followed.[2] Among other "firsts", the Olmec appeared to practice ritual bloodletting and played the Mesoamerican ballgame, hallmarks of nearly all subsequent Mesoamerican societies.

The most familiar aspect of the Olmecs is their artwork, particularly the aptly named "colossal heads".[3] The Olmec civilization was first defined through artifacts which collectors purchased on the pre-Columbian art market in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Olmec artworks are considered among ancient America's most striking.[4]






copy it down and sits down
watch this
http://youtu.be/ARQkj39GJ6A


The beginnings of Olmec civilization have traditionally been placed between 1400 and 1200 BCE. Recent finds of Olmec remains ritually deposited at El Manati shrine (near San Lorenzo) moved this back to "at least" 1600-1500 BCE.[8] It seems that the Olmec had their roots in early farming cultures of Tabasco, which began between 5100 BCE and 4600 BCE. These shared the same basic food crops and technologies of the later Olmec civilization.[9]

What is today called Olmec first appeared fully within the city of San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán, where distinctive Olmec features occurred around 1400 BCE. The rise of civilization was assisted by the local ecology of well-watered alluvial soil, as well as by the transportation network provided by the Coatzacoalcos River basin. This environment may be compared to that of other ancient centers of civilization: the Nile, Indus, and Yellow River valleys, and Mesopotamia. This highly productive environment encouraged a densely concentrated population, which in turn triggered the rise of an elite class.[10] The elite class created the demand for the production of the symbolic and sophisticated luxury artifacts that define Olmec culture.[11] Many of these luxury artifacts were made from materials such as jade, obsidian and magnetite, which came from distant locations and suggest that early Olmec elites had access to an extensive trading network in Mesoamerica. The source of the most valued jade, for example, is found in the Motagua River valley in eastern Guatemala,[12] and Olmec obsidian has been traced to sources in the Guatemala highlands, such as El Chayal and San Martín Jilotepeque, or in Puebla,[13] distances ranging from 200 to 400 km away (120–250 miles away), respectively.[14]



keeps taking notes

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30 / M / Cleveland,OH,USA
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Posted 12/8/12

EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:

Central American Studies 134- a class for history buffs. It was originally Central American Tongues, but the cultural studies eventually took over the language and the class name was changed. In the Bonfire Room,professor Klima waited for all the students to file in, stamping out his cigarette and setting up class behind the main desk. I hope this goes better than Big Cat Studies did, I cant afford to be gettin' fired after two days..


School is starting - walks in -


"Alright, there will be no roll call as this is an subelective, and attendance is not required, simply completion of assignments. Those of you who are here and following, please, i encourage you to participate as it is one third of your grade aside from assignments and exams, now, for those of you who have already had some knowledge of my teaching method in Big Cat Studies, you will know that your first assignment is indeed tonight and there will be no grace periods for late/incomplete work. Ok then, all frankness aside, my name is Mr. Klima and welcome to Central American Studies. I will begin by presenting some notes from our first lesson. Please copy."

The Olmec were the first major civilization in Mexico. They lived in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, in the modern-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco.

The Olmec flourished during Mesoamerica's Formative period, dating roughly from as early as 1500 BCE to about 400 BCE. Pre-Olmec cultures had flourished in the area since about 2500 BCE, but by 1600-1500 BCE Early Olmec culture had emerged centered around the San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán site near the coast in southeast Veracruz.[1] They were the first Mesoamerican civilization and laid many of the foundations for the civilizations that followed.[2] Among other "firsts", the Olmec appeared to practice ritual bloodletting and played the Mesoamerican ballgame, hallmarks of nearly all subsequent Mesoamerican societies.

The most familiar aspect of the Olmecs is their artwork, particularly the aptly named "colossal heads".[3] The Olmec civilization was first defined through artifacts which collectors purchased on the pre-Columbian art market in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Olmec artworks are considered among ancient America's most striking.[4]






copy it down and sits down
watch this
http://youtu.be/ARQkj39GJ6A


The beginnings of Olmec civilization have traditionally been placed between 1400 and 1200 BCE. Recent finds of Olmec remains ritually deposited at El Manati shrine (near San Lorenzo) moved this back to "at least" 1600-1500 BCE.[8] It seems that the Olmec had their roots in early farming cultures of Tabasco, which began between 5100 BCE and 4600 BCE. These shared the same basic food crops and technologies of the later Olmec civilization.[9]

What is today called Olmec first appeared fully within the city of San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán, where distinctive Olmec features occurred around 1400 BCE. The rise of civilization was assisted by the local ecology of well-watered alluvial soil, as well as by the transportation network provided by the Coatzacoalcos River basin. This environment may be compared to that of other ancient centers of civilization: the Nile, Indus, and Yellow River valleys, and Mesopotamia. This highly productive environment encouraged a densely concentrated population, which in turn triggered the rise of an elite class.[10] The elite class created the demand for the production of the symbolic and sophisticated luxury artifacts that define Olmec culture.[11] Many of these luxury artifacts were made from materials such as jade, obsidian and magnetite, which came from distant locations and suggest that early Olmec elites had access to an extensive trading network in Mesoamerica. The source of the most valued jade, for example, is found in the Motagua River valley in eastern Guatemala,[12] and Olmec obsidian has been traced to sources in the Guatemala highlands, such as El Chayal and San Martín Jilotepeque, or in Puebla,[13] distances ranging from 200 to 400 km away (120–250 miles away), respectively.[14]



keeps taking notes



La Venta
Main article: La Venta
Great pyramid in La Venta, Tabasco.

The first Olmec center, San Lorenzo, was all but abandoned around 900 BCE at about the same time that La Venta rose to prominence.[15] A wholesale destruction of many San Lorenzo monuments also occurred circa 950 BCE, which may indicate an internal uprising or, less likely, an invasion.[16] The latest thinking, however, is that environmental changes may have been responsible for this shift in Olmec centers, with certain important rivers changing course.[17]

In any case, following the decline of San Lorenzo, La Venta became the most prominent Olmec center, lasting from 900 BCE until its abandonment around 400 BCE.[18] La Venta sustained the Olmec cultural traditions, but with spectacular displays of power and wealth. The Great Pyramid was the largest Mesoamerican structure of its time. Even today, after 2500 years of erosion, it rises 34 metres (112 ft) above the naturally flat landscape.[19] Buried deep within La Venta, lay opulent, labor-intensive "offerings" – 1000 tons of smooth serpentine blocks, large mosaic pavements, and at least 48 separate deposits of polished jade celts, pottery, figurines, and hematite mirrors.[20]

Creator
97969 cr points
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26 / F / With Edward and I...
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Posted 12/8/12

sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:

Central American Studies 134- a class for history buffs. It was originally Central American Tongues, but the cultural studies eventually took over the language and the class name was changed. In the Bonfire Room,professor Klima waited for all the students to file in, stamping out his cigarette and setting up class behind the main desk. I hope this goes better than Big Cat Studies did, I cant afford to be gettin' fired after two days..


School is starting - walks in -


"Alright, there will be no roll call as this is an subelective, and attendance is not required, simply completion of assignments. Those of you who are here and following, please, i encourage you to participate as it is one third of your grade aside from assignments and exams, now, for those of you who have already had some knowledge of my teaching method in Big Cat Studies, you will know that your first assignment is indeed tonight and there will be no grace periods for late/incomplete work. Ok then, all frankness aside, my name is Mr. Klima and welcome to Central American Studies. I will begin by presenting some notes from our first lesson. Please copy."

The Olmec were the first major civilization in Mexico. They lived in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, in the modern-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco.

The Olmec flourished during Mesoamerica's Formative period, dating roughly from as early as 1500 BCE to about 400 BCE. Pre-Olmec cultures had flourished in the area since about 2500 BCE, but by 1600-1500 BCE Early Olmec culture had emerged centered around the San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán site near the coast in southeast Veracruz.[1] They were the first Mesoamerican civilization and laid many of the foundations for the civilizations that followed.[2] Among other "firsts", the Olmec appeared to practice ritual bloodletting and played the Mesoamerican ballgame, hallmarks of nearly all subsequent Mesoamerican societies.

The most familiar aspect of the Olmecs is their artwork, particularly the aptly named "colossal heads".[3] The Olmec civilization was first defined through artifacts which collectors purchased on the pre-Columbian art market in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Olmec artworks are considered among ancient America's most striking.[4]






copy it down and sits down
watch this
http://youtu.be/ARQkj39GJ6A


The beginnings of Olmec civilization have traditionally been placed between 1400 and 1200 BCE. Recent finds of Olmec remains ritually deposited at El Manati shrine (near San Lorenzo) moved this back to "at least" 1600-1500 BCE.[8] It seems that the Olmec had their roots in early farming cultures of Tabasco, which began between 5100 BCE and 4600 BCE. These shared the same basic food crops and technologies of the later Olmec civilization.[9]

What is today called Olmec first appeared fully within the city of San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán, where distinctive Olmec features occurred around 1400 BCE. The rise of civilization was assisted by the local ecology of well-watered alluvial soil, as well as by the transportation network provided by the Coatzacoalcos River basin. This environment may be compared to that of other ancient centers of civilization: the Nile, Indus, and Yellow River valleys, and Mesopotamia. This highly productive environment encouraged a densely concentrated population, which in turn triggered the rise of an elite class.[10] The elite class created the demand for the production of the symbolic and sophisticated luxury artifacts that define Olmec culture.[11] Many of these luxury artifacts were made from materials such as jade, obsidian and magnetite, which came from distant locations and suggest that early Olmec elites had access to an extensive trading network in Mesoamerica. The source of the most valued jade, for example, is found in the Motagua River valley in eastern Guatemala,[12] and Olmec obsidian has been traced to sources in the Guatemala highlands, such as El Chayal and San Martín Jilotepeque, or in Puebla,[13] distances ranging from 200 to 400 km away (120–250 miles away), respectively.[14]



keeps taking notes



La Venta
Main article: La Venta
Great pyramid in La Venta, Tabasco.

The first Olmec center, San Lorenzo, was all but abandoned around 900 BCE at about the same time that La Venta rose to prominence.[15] A wholesale destruction of many San Lorenzo monuments also occurred circa 950 BCE, which may indicate an internal uprising or, less likely, an invasion.[16] The latest thinking, however, is that environmental changes may have been responsible for this shift in Olmec centers, with certain important rivers changing course.[17]

In any case, following the decline of San Lorenzo, La Venta became the most prominent Olmec center, lasting from 900 BCE until its abandonment around 400 BCE.[18] La Venta sustained the Olmec cultural traditions, but with spectacular displays of power and wealth. The Great Pyramid was the largest Mesoamerican structure of its time. Even today, after 2500 years of erosion, it rises 34 metres (112 ft) above the naturally flat landscape.[19] Buried deep within La Venta, lay opulent, labor-intensive "offerings" – 1000 tons of smooth serpentine blocks, large mosaic pavements, and at least 48 separate deposits of polished jade celts, pottery, figurines, and hematite mirrors.[20]


So much homework to do later
2955 cr points
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30 / M / Cleveland,OH,USA
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Posted 12/8/12

EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:

Central American Studies 134- a class for history buffs. It was originally Central American Tongues, but the cultural studies eventually took over the language and the class name was changed. In the Bonfire Room,professor Klima waited for all the students to file in, stamping out his cigarette and setting up class behind the main desk. I hope this goes better than Big Cat Studies did, I cant afford to be gettin' fired after two days..


School is starting - walks in -


"Alright, there will be no roll call as this is an subelective, and attendance is not required, simply completion of assignments. Those of you who are here and following, please, i encourage you to participate as it is one third of your grade aside from assignments and exams, now, for those of you who have already had some knowledge of my teaching method in Big Cat Studies, you will know that your first assignment is indeed tonight and there will be no grace periods for late/incomplete work. Ok then, all frankness aside, my name is Mr. Klima and welcome to Central American Studies. I will begin by presenting some notes from our first lesson. Please copy."

The Olmec were the first major civilization in Mexico. They lived in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, in the modern-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco.

The Olmec flourished during Mesoamerica's Formative period, dating roughly from as early as 1500 BCE to about 400 BCE. Pre-Olmec cultures had flourished in the area since about 2500 BCE, but by 1600-1500 BCE Early Olmec culture had emerged centered around the San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán site near the coast in southeast Veracruz.[1] They were the first Mesoamerican civilization and laid many of the foundations for the civilizations that followed.[2] Among other "firsts", the Olmec appeared to practice ritual bloodletting and played the Mesoamerican ballgame, hallmarks of nearly all subsequent Mesoamerican societies.

The most familiar aspect of the Olmecs is their artwork, particularly the aptly named "colossal heads".[3] The Olmec civilization was first defined through artifacts which collectors purchased on the pre-Columbian art market in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Olmec artworks are considered among ancient America's most striking.[4]






copy it down and sits down
watch this
http://youtu.be/ARQkj39GJ6A


The beginnings of Olmec civilization have traditionally been placed between 1400 and 1200 BCE. Recent finds of Olmec remains ritually deposited at El Manati shrine (near San Lorenzo) moved this back to "at least" 1600-1500 BCE.[8] It seems that the Olmec had their roots in early farming cultures of Tabasco, which began between 5100 BCE and 4600 BCE. These shared the same basic food crops and technologies of the later Olmec civilization.[9]

What is today called Olmec first appeared fully within the city of San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán, where distinctive Olmec features occurred around 1400 BCE. The rise of civilization was assisted by the local ecology of well-watered alluvial soil, as well as by the transportation network provided by the Coatzacoalcos River basin. This environment may be compared to that of other ancient centers of civilization: the Nile, Indus, and Yellow River valleys, and Mesopotamia. This highly productive environment encouraged a densely concentrated population, which in turn triggered the rise of an elite class.[10] The elite class created the demand for the production of the symbolic and sophisticated luxury artifacts that define Olmec culture.[11] Many of these luxury artifacts were made from materials such as jade, obsidian and magnetite, which came from distant locations and suggest that early Olmec elites had access to an extensive trading network in Mesoamerica. The source of the most valued jade, for example, is found in the Motagua River valley in eastern Guatemala,[12] and Olmec obsidian has been traced to sources in the Guatemala highlands, such as El Chayal and San Martín Jilotepeque, or in Puebla,[13] distances ranging from 200 to 400 km away (120–250 miles away), respectively.[14]



keeps taking notes



La Venta
Main article: La Venta
Great pyramid in La Venta, Tabasco.

The first Olmec center, San Lorenzo, was all but abandoned around 900 BCE at about the same time that La Venta rose to prominence.[15] A wholesale destruction of many San Lorenzo monuments also occurred circa 950 BCE, which may indicate an internal uprising or, less likely, an invasion.[16] The latest thinking, however, is that environmental changes may have been responsible for this shift in Olmec centers, with certain important rivers changing course.[17]

In any case, following the decline of San Lorenzo, La Venta became the most prominent Olmec center, lasting from 900 BCE until its abandonment around 400 BCE.[18] La Venta sustained the Olmec cultural traditions, but with spectacular displays of power and wealth. The Great Pyramid was the largest Mesoamerican structure of its time. Even today, after 2500 years of erosion, it rises 34 metres (112 ft) above the naturally flat landscape.[19] Buried deep within La Venta, lay opulent, labor-intensive "offerings" – 1000 tons of smooth serpentine blocks, large mosaic pavements, and at least 48 separate deposits of polished jade celts, pottery, figurines, and hematite mirrors.[20]


So much homework to do later


As the students patiently took notes, the professor walked around the heat of the bonfire, observing his class. Well, at least these guys pay attention. Time to put them to the test.

"Alright. Quick review of what we've gone over so far. Miss Cullen, thank you for volunteering. Will you please tell us what modern-day nation was originally the home of the Olmec culture, along with the names of the two major settlements we discussed?"
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sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:

Central American Studies 134- a class for history buffs. It was originally Central American Tongues, but the cultural studies eventually took over the language and the class name was changed. In the Bonfire Room,professor Klima waited for all the students to file in, stamping out his cigarette and setting up class behind the main desk. I hope this goes better than Big Cat Studies did, I cant afford to be gettin' fired after two days..


School is starting - walks in -


"Alright, there will be no roll call as this is an subelective, and attendance is not required, simply completion of assignments. Those of you who are here and following, please, i encourage you to participate as it is one third of your grade aside from assignments and exams, now, for those of you who have already had some knowledge of my teaching method in Big Cat Studies, you will know that your first assignment is indeed tonight and there will be no grace periods for late/incomplete work. Ok then, all frankness aside, my name is Mr. Klima and welcome to Central American Studies. I will begin by presenting some notes from our first lesson. Please copy."

The Olmec were the first major civilization in Mexico. They lived in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, in the modern-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco.

The Olmec flourished during Mesoamerica's Formative period, dating roughly from as early as 1500 BCE to about 400 BCE. Pre-Olmec cultures had flourished in the area since about 2500 BCE, but by 1600-1500 BCE Early Olmec culture had emerged centered around the San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán site near the coast in southeast Veracruz.[1] They were the first Mesoamerican civilization and laid many of the foundations for the civilizations that followed.[2] Among other "firsts", the Olmec appeared to practice ritual bloodletting and played the Mesoamerican ballgame, hallmarks of nearly all subsequent Mesoamerican societies.

The most familiar aspect of the Olmecs is their artwork, particularly the aptly named "colossal heads".[3] The Olmec civilization was first defined through artifacts which collectors purchased on the pre-Columbian art market in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Olmec artworks are considered among ancient America's most striking.[4]






copy it down and sits down
watch this
http://youtu.be/ARQkj39GJ6A


The beginnings of Olmec civilization have traditionally been placed between 1400 and 1200 BCE. Recent finds of Olmec remains ritually deposited at El Manati shrine (near San Lorenzo) moved this back to "at least" 1600-1500 BCE.[8] It seems that the Olmec had their roots in early farming cultures of Tabasco, which began between 5100 BCE and 4600 BCE. These shared the same basic food crops and technologies of the later Olmec civilization.[9]

What is today called Olmec first appeared fully within the city of San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán, where distinctive Olmec features occurred around 1400 BCE. The rise of civilization was assisted by the local ecology of well-watered alluvial soil, as well as by the transportation network provided by the Coatzacoalcos River basin. This environment may be compared to that of other ancient centers of civilization: the Nile, Indus, and Yellow River valleys, and Mesopotamia. This highly productive environment encouraged a densely concentrated population, which in turn triggered the rise of an elite class.[10] The elite class created the demand for the production of the symbolic and sophisticated luxury artifacts that define Olmec culture.[11] Many of these luxury artifacts were made from materials such as jade, obsidian and magnetite, which came from distant locations and suggest that early Olmec elites had access to an extensive trading network in Mesoamerica. The source of the most valued jade, for example, is found in the Motagua River valley in eastern Guatemala,[12] and Olmec obsidian has been traced to sources in the Guatemala highlands, such as El Chayal and San Martín Jilotepeque, or in Puebla,[13] distances ranging from 200 to 400 km away (120–250 miles away), respectively.[14]



keeps taking notes



La Venta
Main article: La Venta
Great pyramid in La Venta, Tabasco.

The first Olmec center, San Lorenzo, was all but abandoned around 900 BCE at about the same time that La Venta rose to prominence.[15] A wholesale destruction of many San Lorenzo monuments also occurred circa 950 BCE, which may indicate an internal uprising or, less likely, an invasion.[16] The latest thinking, however, is that environmental changes may have been responsible for this shift in Olmec centers, with certain important rivers changing course.[17]

In any case, following the decline of San Lorenzo, La Venta became the most prominent Olmec center, lasting from 900 BCE until its abandonment around 400 BCE.[18] La Venta sustained the Olmec cultural traditions, but with spectacular displays of power and wealth. The Great Pyramid was the largest Mesoamerican structure of its time. Even today, after 2500 years of erosion, it rises 34 metres (112 ft) above the naturally flat landscape.[19] Buried deep within La Venta, lay opulent, labor-intensive "offerings" – 1000 tons of smooth serpentine blocks, large mosaic pavements, and at least 48 separate deposits of polished jade celts, pottery, figurines, and hematite mirrors.[20]


So much homework to do later


As the students patiently took notes, the professor walked around the heat of the bonfire, observing his class. Well, at least these guys pay attention. Time to put them to the test.

"Alright. Quick review of what we've gone over so far. Miss Cullen, thank you for volunteering. Will you please tell us what modern-day nation was originally the home of the Olmec culture, along with the names of the two major settlements we discussed?"


no thank you professor . Don't feel well.
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Posted 12/8/12

EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:


EdwardCullen-BellaCullen wrote:


sky_maverick wrote:

Central American Studies 134- a class for history buffs. It was originally Central American Tongues, but the cultural studies eventually took over the language and the class name was changed. In the Bonfire Room,professor Klima waited for all the students to file in, stamping out his cigarette and setting up class behind the main desk. I hope this goes better than Big Cat Studies did, I cant afford to be gettin' fired after two days..


School is starting - walks in -


"Alright, there will be no roll call as this is an subelective, and attendance is not required, simply completion of assignments. Those of you who are here and following, please, i encourage you to participate as it is one third of your grade aside from assignments and exams, now, for those of you who have already had some knowledge of my teaching method in Big Cat Studies, you will know that your first assignment is indeed tonight and there will be no grace periods for late/incomplete work. Ok then, all frankness aside, my name is Mr. Klima and welcome to Central American Studies. I will begin by presenting some notes from our first lesson. Please copy."

The Olmec were the first major civilization in Mexico. They lived in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, in the modern-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco.

The Olmec flourished during Mesoamerica's Formative period, dating roughly from as early as 1500 BCE to about 400 BCE. Pre-Olmec cultures had flourished in the area since about 2500 BCE, but by 1600-1500 BCE Early Olmec culture had emerged centered around the San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán site near the coast in southeast Veracruz.[1] They were the first Mesoamerican civilization and laid many of the foundations for the civilizations that followed.[2] Among other "firsts", the Olmec appeared to practice ritual bloodletting and played the Mesoamerican ballgame, hallmarks of nearly all subsequent Mesoamerican societies.

The most familiar aspect of the Olmecs is their artwork, particularly the aptly named "colossal heads".[3] The Olmec civilization was first defined through artifacts which collectors purchased on the pre-Columbian art market in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Olmec artworks are considered among ancient America's most striking.[4]






copy it down and sits down
watch this
http://youtu.be/ARQkj39GJ6A


The beginnings of Olmec civilization have traditionally been placed between 1400 and 1200 BCE. Recent finds of Olmec remains ritually deposited at El Manati shrine (near San Lorenzo) moved this back to "at least" 1600-1500 BCE.[8] It seems that the Olmec had their roots in early farming cultures of Tabasco, which began between 5100 BCE and 4600 BCE. These shared the same basic food crops and technologies of the later Olmec civilization.[9]

What is today called Olmec first appeared fully within the city of San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán, where distinctive Olmec features occurred around 1400 BCE. The rise of civilization was assisted by the local ecology of well-watered alluvial soil, as well as by the transportation network provided by the Coatzacoalcos River basin. This environment may be compared to that of other ancient centers of civilization: the Nile, Indus, and Yellow River valleys, and Mesopotamia. This highly productive environment encouraged a densely concentrated population, which in turn triggered the rise of an elite class.[10] The elite class created the demand for the production of the symbolic and sophisticated luxury artifacts that define Olmec culture.[11] Many of these luxury artifacts were made from materials such as jade, obsidian and magnetite, which came from distant locations and suggest that early Olmec elites had access to an extensive trading network in Mesoamerica. The source of the most valued jade, for example, is found in the Motagua River valley in eastern Guatemala,[12] and Olmec obsidian has been traced to sources in the Guatemala highlands, such as El Chayal and San Martín Jilotepeque, or in Puebla,[13] distances ranging from 200 to 400 km away (120–250 miles away), respectively.[14]



keeps taking notes



La Venta
Main article: La Venta
Great pyramid in La Venta, Tabasco.

The first Olmec center, San Lorenzo, was all but abandoned around 900 BCE at about the same time that La Venta rose to prominence.[15] A wholesale destruction of many San Lorenzo monuments also occurred circa 950 BCE, which may indicate an internal uprising or, less likely, an invasion.[16] The latest thinking, however, is that environmental changes may have been responsible for this shift in Olmec centers, with certain important rivers changing course.[17]

In any case, following the decline of San Lorenzo, La Venta became the most prominent Olmec center, lasting from 900 BCE until its abandonment around 400 BCE.[18] La Venta sustained the Olmec cultural traditions, but with spectacular displays of power and wealth. The Great Pyramid was the largest Mesoamerican structure of its time. Even today, after 2500 years of erosion, it rises 34 metres (112 ft) above the naturally flat landscape.[19] Buried deep within La Venta, lay opulent, labor-intensive "offerings" – 1000 tons of smooth serpentine blocks, large mosaic pavements, and at least 48 separate deposits of polished jade celts, pottery, figurines, and hematite mirrors.[20]


So much homework to do later


As the students patiently took notes, the professor walked around the heat of the bonfire, observing his class. Well, at least these guys pay attention. Time to put them to the test.

"Alright. Quick review of what we've gone over so far. Miss Cullen, thank you for volunteering. Will you please tell us what modern-day nation was originally the home of the Olmec culture, along with the names of the two major settlements we discussed?"


no thank you professor . Don't feel well.


Seriously, kid? All you gotta do is look at the notes you JUST TOOK. Man, I'm getting nowhere with anybody..oh, no. Here comes the headmaster. NOT good. Just keep lecturing and giving notes so it looks like this is going okay..


Decline

Scholars have not determined the cause of the eventual extinction of the Olmec culture. Between 400 and 350 BCE, the population in the eastern half of the Olmec heartland dropped precipitously, and the area was sparsely inhabited until the 19th century.[21] This depopulation was likely the result of "very serious environmental changes that rendered the region unsuited for large groups of farmers", in particular changes to the riverine environment that the Olmec depended upon for agriculture, hunting and gathering, and transportation. Archaeologists propose that these changes were triggered by tectonic upheavals or subsidence, or the silting up of rivers due to agricultural practices.[22]

One theory for the considerable population drop during the Terminal Formative period is suggested by Santley and colleagues (Santley et al. 1997) who propose shifts in settlement location [relocation] due to volcanism instead of extinction. Volcanic eruptions during the Early, Late and Terminal Formative periods would have blanketed the lands and forced the Olmec to move their settlements.[23]

Whatever the cause, within a few hundred years of the abandonment of the last Olmec cities, successor cultures became firmly established. The Tres Zapotes site, on the western edge of the Olmec heartland, continued to be occupied well past 400 BCE, but without the hallmarks of the Olmec culture. This post-Olmec culture, often labeled Epi-Olmec, has features similar to those found at Izapa, some 330 miles (550 km) to the southeast.[24]


With a silent eye, the headmaster of Devonry Academy stepped into the room. His gaunt face remained fairly expressionless as he eyed the new professor in the middle of his work.
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Art


The Olmec culture was first defined as an art style, and this continues to be the hallmark of the culture.[25] Wrought in a large number of media – jade, clay, basalt, and greenstone among others – much Olmec art, such as The Wrestler, is surprisingly naturalistic. Other art expresses fantastic anthropomorphic creatures, often highly stylized, using an iconography reflective of a religious meaning.[26] Common motifs include downturned mouths and a cleft head, both of which are seen in representations of were-jaguars.[25]

In addition to making human and human-like subjects, Olmec artisans were adept at animal portrayals, for example, the fish vessel to the right or the bird vessel in the gallery below.

While Olmec figurines are found abundantly in sites throughout the Formative Period, the stone monuments such as the colossal heads are the most recognizable feature of Olmec culture.[27] These monuments can be divided into four classes:[28]

Colossal heads;
Rectangular "altars" (more likely thrones) such as Altar 5 shown below;
Free-standing in-the-round sculpture, such as the twins from El Azuzul or San Martin Pajapan Monument 1; and
Stelae, such as La Venta Monument 19 above. The stelae form was generally introduced later than the colossal heads, altars, or free-standing sculptures. Over time, the stelae changed from simple representation of figures, such as Monument 19 or La Venta Stela 1, toward representations of historical events, particularly acts legitimizing rulers. This trend would culminate in post-Olmec monuments such as La Mojarra Stela 1, which combines images of rulers with script and calendar dates.[29]

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