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Post Reply Scientists 'find cancer's Achilles heel'
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Posted 3/4/16

Scientists believe they have discovered a way to "steer" the immune system to kill cancers.

Researchers at University College, London have developed a way of finding unique markings within a tumour - its "Achilles heel" - allowing the body to target the disease.

But the personalised method, reported in Science journal, would be expensive and has not yet been tried in patients.
Experts said the idea made sense but could be more complicated in reality.

However, the researchers, whose work was funded by Cancer Research UK, believe their discovery could form the backbone of new treatments and hope to test it in patients within two years.

They believe by analysing the DNA, they'll be able to develop bespoke treatment.

People have tried to steer the immune system to kill tumours before, but cancer vaccines have largely flopped.

One explanation is that they are training the body's own defences to go after the wrong target.

The problem is cancers are not made up of identical cells - they are a heavily mutated, genetic mess and samples at different sites within a tumour can look and behave very differently.

'Exciting'

They grow a bit like a tree with core "trunk" mutations, but then mutations that branch off in all directions. It is known as cancer heterogeneity.

This takes personalised medicine to its absolute limit, where each patient would have a unique, bespoke treatment
Professor Charles Swanton, UCL Cancer Institute

The international study developed a way of discovering the "trunk" mutations that change antigens - the proteins that stick out from the surface of cancer cells.

Professor Charles Swanton, from the UCL Cancer Institute, added: "This is exciting. Now we can prioritise and target tumour antigens that are present in every cell - the Achilles heel of these highly complex cancers.

"This is really fascinating and takes personalised medicine to its absolute limit, where each patient would have a unique, bespoke treatment."

There are two approaches being suggested for targeting the trunk mutations.

The first is to develop cancer vaccines for each patient that train the immune system to spot them.

The second is to "fish" for immune cells that already target those mutations and swell their numbers in the lab, and then put them back into the body.

'Early days'

Dr Marco Gerlinger, from the Institute of Cancer Research, said: "This is a very important step and makes us think about heterogeneity as a problem and why this gives cancer this big advantage.

Cancers are moving targets which makes it difficult to get them under control
Marco Gerlinger, Institute of Cancer Research

"Targeting trunk mutations makes sense from many points of view, but it is early days and whether it's that simple, I'm not entirely sure.

"Many cancers are not standing still but they keep evolving constantly. These are moving targets which makes it difficult to get them under control.

"Cancers that can change and evolve could lose the initial antigen or maybe come up with smokescreens of other good antigens so that the immune system gets confused."

Analysis

James Gallagher, health editor, BBC News website

Harnessing the power of the immune system - what's known as immunotherapy - is the most exciting field in cancer and probably in all of medicine right now.

But while that excitement is justified, claims that a cure for cancer is around the corner are not.

Medical research is littered with the graves of hyped treatments that just never worked.

Two decades ago, gene therapy was "hype-central" and we're still waiting for it to transform medicine.

This study demonstrates some spectacular science that furthers understanding of how the immune system and cancer interact.

But this new knowledge has not been used to treat a single patient. There have not even been animal studies. So there is a real risk it will not work.

Even if it does, this is an hugely expensive approach that would need to be customised to every patient in a process that takes more than a year from start to finish.

Some immunotherapy treatments work spectacularly with some patients' cancer disappearing entirely.
They take the brakes off the immune system, freeing it up to fight cancer.

The researchers hope the combination of removing the immune system's brakes and then taking over the steering wheel, will save lives.

Professor Peter Johnson, from Cancer Research UK, said the research had shown "impressive results in the clinic" and although "the technology is complicated and quite recent... once you start doing it the cost will come down".

'Elegant study'

Dr Stefan Symeonides, clinician scientist in experimental cancer medicine at the University of Edinburgh, said designing a personalised vaccine was currently impractical, especially when a patient needed treatment straight away.

But he added that the "very elegant" study did provide a ground-breaking insight into current immunotherapy drugs, which do not yet work for most people.

"It's not just the number of antigens, it's how many of the cancer cells have them," he said.

"This data will be quoted in discussions for years, as we try to understand which patients benefit from immunotherapy drugs, which ones don't, and why, so we can improve those therapies."


http://www.bbc.com/news/health-35718491?ocid=socialflow_facebook&ns_mchannel=social&ns_campaign=bbcnews&ns_source=facebook

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Posted 3/4/16 , edited 3/4/16


Gotta say I like the news headlines you keep posting
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Posted 3/4/16

Rujikin wrote:



Gotta say I like the news headlines you keep posting


I do what I can, haha

Posted 3/4/16

Rujikin wrote:



Gotta say I like the news headlines you keep posting


I do too
Posted 3/5/16 , edited 3/6/16
I dislike his news headlines, because most of it feels to me like political spam, but that's just me. I mean, if I began posting about articles about how damage we're doing to the environment through anthropocentric global warming or all the good planned parenthood does, would you not say I'd have some ulterior political motive? D4ncestyle's headlines are likely political motivated, and while he claims he isn't upset by this, I don't believe it. He might not be exhibiting outward signs of anger against the immigrants, but again, if he's not upset or doesn't care, why post them?

That being said, I don't advocate for his ban or anything because I don't think what he is doing is against the rules or should be, I'm just a bit annoyed, that is all. I know he'll probably post that he doesn't care what I think of him as per usual, but my opinion matters to me and I care enough to post my opinion. This is where discussion begins.

Though let's be honest, most of what I do can be considered annoying.
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Posted 3/5/16 , edited 3/5/16

But this new knowledge has not been used to treat a single patient. There have not even been animal studies. So there is a real risk it will not work.


*squints*

There haven't even been preclinical animal studies yet?


PeripheralVisionary wrote:

Though let's be honest, most of what I do can be considered annoying.


Bite your tongue, Onii-chan!
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Posted 3/5/16
This is pretty nifty, I just hope it wokrs.
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Posted 3/5/16
Harnessing the immune system to target cancerous cells would seem like an obvious course of action. However, the difficulties in executing the strategy stem from one simple fact: cancer cells originate from our own body, making it next to impossible to "prime" the immune system for them, the way vaccines normally do. (also, vaccines are largely safe and do not cause autism, just in case some anti-vax bullshit's been doing the rounds here.)

All the talk about taking the brakes off the immune system can also lead to dangerous side effects if it isn't handled with care. Potentially deadly allergies and autoimmune diseases occur as a result of a hypersensitive and/or malfunctioning immune system, hence tinkering with it carries a lot of risk.

And lastly, as the report said, cancer's an extremely diverse kind of disease. Since deregulation of gene expression is both a cause and consequence of cancer, it's very difficult to pinpoint exact ways of targeting cancer cells that will work for a wide variety of patients. Which is why the focus is shifting to personalized medicine in case of this disease. It's also why "curing cancer" has become a buzzword on par with "world peace" with regards to the absurd difficulty of accomplishing it. Every cancer is different, and combating most kinds of cancer carries with it a ton of risks.
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Posted 3/5/16
My mother is being treated with a drug (opdivo) based on this principle, if my understanding is correct. It's working really well.
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Posted 3/5/16
People are living in a world of delusions of grandeur if they think the cure for cancer will A be so simple and B be easily available IF they they find one you can bet your arse they will market the hell out of it !
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Posted 3/5/16

LordAusir wrote:

Any disease can be cured. All cures for any disease has already been out there in nature. Just go do your research and you will find cures everywhere. The government has lied to you that there are no cures for cancer and the government hides these cures or kills the people that invents or find them. You are the one living in delusions and lies. The reason why there are no big markets is because the government has been suppressing the knowledge of these cures. Just do a quick Google search, and you will find many cures for all diseases.


Alex Jones, is that you?
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Posted 3/5/16

PeripheralVisionary wrote:

I dislike his news headlines, because most of it feels to me like political spam, but that's just me. I mean, if I began posting about articles about how damage we're doing to the environment through anthropocentric global warming or all the good planned parenthood does, would you not say I'd have some ulterior political motive? D4ncestyle's headlines are likely political motivated, and while he claims he isn't upset by this, I don't believe it. He might not be exhibiting outward signs of anger against the immigrants, but again, if he's not upset or doesn't care, why post them?

That being said, I don't advocate for his ban or anything because I don't think what he is doing is against the rules or should be, I'm just a bit annoyed, that is all. I know he'll probably post that he doesn't care what I think of him as per usual, but my opinion matters to me and I care enough to post my opinion. This is where discussion begins.

Though let's be honest, most of what I do can be considered annoying.


Always the global warming and never a concern about the real issues, a plastic layer forming over the ocean, ground water depletion, global water way pollution, and unbreathable air in certain parts of the world ~_~. They have successfully managed to distract you from the real issues.


BlueOni wrote:


LordAusir wrote:

Any disease can be cured. All cures for any disease has already been out there in nature. Just go do your research and you will find cures everywhere. The government has lied to you that there are no cures for cancer and the government hides these cures or kills the people that invents or find them. You are the one living in delusions and lies. The reason why there are no big markets is because the government has been suppressing the knowledge of these cures. Just do a quick Google search, and you will find many cures for all diseases.


Alex Jones, is that you?


I believe all cures exist out there, the problem is people are too focused on finding things that are patentable and there is too much to test.

Today there are at least 120 distinct chemical substances derived from plants that are considered as important drugs currently in use in one or more countries in the world. These chemical substances are shown in the table below. Several of the drugs sold today are simple synthetic modifications or copies of the naturally obtained substances. The original plant substance/chemical name is shown under the "Drug" column rather than the finished patented drug name. For example, many years ago a plant chemical was discovered in a tropical plant, Cephaelis ipecacuanha, and the chemical was named emetine. A drug was developed from this plant chemical called Ipecac which was used for many years to induce vomiting mostly if someone accidently swallowed a poisonous or harmful substance. Ipecac can still be found in pharmacies in many third world countries but has been mostly replaced by other drugs in the United States. Another example of this is the plant chemical named taxol shown in the drug column below. The name taxol is the name of the plant chemical orginally discovered in the plant. A pharmaceutical company copied this chemical and patented a drug named Paclitaxel™ which is used in various types of tumors today in the U.S. and many other countries.
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Posted 3/5/16

Rujikin wrote:

I believe all cures exist out there, the problem is people are too focused on finding things that are patentable and there is too much to test.

Today there are at least 120 distinct chemical substances derived from plants that are considered as important drugs currently in use in one or more countries in the world. These chemical substances are shown in the table below. Several of the drugs sold today are simple synthetic modifications or copies of the naturally obtained substances. The original plant substance/chemical name is shown under the "Drug" column rather than the finished patented drug name. For example, many years ago a plant chemical was discovered in a tropical plant, Cephaelis ipecacuanha, and the chemical was named emetine. A drug was developed from this plant chemical called Ipecac which was used for many years to induce vomiting mostly if someone accidently swallowed a poisonous or harmful substance. Ipecac can still be found in pharmacies in many third world countries but has been mostly replaced by other drugs in the United States. Another example of this is the plant chemical named taxol shown in the drug column below. The name taxol is the name of the plant chemical orginally discovered in the plant. A pharmaceutical company copied this chemical and patented a drug named Paclitaxel™ which is used in various types of tumors today in the U.S. and many other countries.


My point was not that there aren't substances that can be extracted from plants for medicinal purposes. The point was that the governments of the world are not engaged in some mass conspiracy to murder anyone who gets too close to a drug that would reliably, effectively, quickly, and safely treat cancer. I'm also leery of the conclusion that all diseases and disorders can be cured in the first place. For some things you end up in a place where maintenance is just the best you can hope for.
Posted 3/5/16

Rujikin wrote:


PeripheralVisionary wrote:

I dislike his news headlines, because most of it feels to me like political spam, but that's just me. I mean, if I began posting about articles about how damage we're doing to the environment through anthropocentric global warming or all the good planned parenthood does, would you not say I'd have some ulterior political motive? D4ncestyle's headlines are likely political motivated, and while he claims he isn't upset by this, I don't believe it. He might not be exhibiting outward signs of anger against the immigrants, but again, if he's not upset or doesn't care, why post them?

That being said, I don't advocate for his ban or anything because I don't think what he is doing is against the rules or should be, I'm just a bit annoyed, that is all. I know he'll probably post that he doesn't care what I think of him as per usual, but my opinion matters to me and I care enough to post my opinion. This is where discussion begins.

Though let's be honest, most of what I do can be considered annoying.


Always the global warming and never a concern about the real issues, a plastic layer forming over the ocean, ground water depletion, global water way pollution, and unbreathable air in certain parts of the world ~_~. They have successfully managed to distract you from the real issues.


BlueOni wrote:


LordAusir wrote:

Any disease can be cured. All cures for any disease has already been out there in nature. Just go do your research and you will find cures everywhere. The government has lied to you that there are no cures for cancer and the government hides these cures or kills the people that invents or find them. You are the one living in delusions and lies. The reason why there are no big markets is because the government has been suppressing the knowledge of these cures. Just do a quick Google search, and you will find many cures for all diseases.


Alex Jones, is that you?


I believe all cures exist out there, the problem is people are too focused on finding things that are patentable and there is too much to test.

Today there are at least 120 distinct chemical substances derived from plants that are considered as important drugs currently in use in one or more countries in the world. These chemical substances are shown in the table below. Several of the drugs sold today are simple synthetic modifications or copies of the naturally obtained substances. The original plant substance/chemical name is shown under the "Drug" column rather than the finished patented drug name. For example, many years ago a plant chemical was discovered in a tropical plant, Cephaelis ipecacuanha, and the chemical was named emetine. A drug was developed from this plant chemical called Ipecac which was used for many years to induce vomiting mostly if someone accidently swallowed a poisonous or harmful substance. Ipecac can still be found in pharmacies in many third world countries but has been mostly replaced by other drugs in the United States. Another example of this is the plant chemical named taxol shown in the drug column below. The name taxol is the name of the plant chemical orginally discovered in the plant. A pharmaceutical company copied this chemical and patented a drug named Paclitaxel™ which is used in various types of tumors today in the U.S. and many other countries.

I was only using it as an example, but it would annoy you, yes?
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