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Post Reply Only half of a chromosome is DNA, 3-D imaging reveals
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Hoosierville
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Posted 12 days ago , edited 12 days ago
From: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/11/161121170310.htm



DNA makes up only half of the material inside chromosomes -- far less than was previously thought -- a study has revealed.

Up to 47 per cent of their structure is a mysterious sheath that surrounds the genetic material, researchers say.

While the precise function of this sheath is unknown, researchers suggest it may keep chromosomes isolated from one another during the key process of cell division.

Researchers say this so-called chromosome periphery could help to prevent errors from occurring when cells divide -- a hallmark of some forms of cancer and diseases associated with birth defects.

Using advanced imaging techniques, researchers have for the first time produced detailed 3D models of all 46 human chromosomes -- the structures inside cells that contain our genetic material.

Since their discovery in 1882, chromosomes have been the focus of intensive study. In spite of major technical advances, the complete structure and organisation of chromosomes has remained a mystery, researchers say.

Scientists at the University of Edinburgh developed a precise microscopy technique that allows them to study the structure of chromosomes in unprecedented detail. The method -- known as 3D-CLEM -- combines light and electron microscopy with computational modelling software to produce high-resolution 3D images of chromosomes.

Analysis of the images reveals that material containing DNA and supporting proteins -- known as chromatin -- accounts for between 53 and 70 per cent of the total contents of chromosomes. The remaining 30 to 47 per cent is composed of the chromosome periphery.

The study, published in the journal Molecular Cell, was funded by The Wellcome Trust. The research was carried out in collaboration with the Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Japan, National Cancer Institute, US, and the University of Liverpool.

Dr Daniel Booth, of the University of Edinburgh's School of Biological Sciences, who co-led the study, said: "The imaging technique we have developed to study chromosomes is truly groundbreaking. Defining the structure of all 46 human chromosomes for the first time has forced us to reconsider the idea that they are composed almost exclusively of chromatin, an assumption that has gone largely unchallenged for almost 100 years."

Professor Bill Earnshaw, of the University of Edinburgh's School of Biological Sciences, who co-led the study, said: "We now have to re-think how chromosomes are built and how they segregate when cells divide, since the genetic material is covered by this thick layer of other material."
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Posted 12 days ago , edited 12 days ago
looks like school has taught me false information
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26 / M / Your friendly nei...
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So it's like... DNA... wears a condom
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Hoosierville
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Posted 12 days ago , edited 12 days ago

thekevin4 wrote:

So it's like... DNA... wears a condom


Pretty much. Makes sense you don't want to accidentally cross the wires.
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Posted 12 days ago , edited 12 days ago
Sounds like an interesting nano material structure that can be explored, you sure there isn't more information about this sheath?
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cool pic bro
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Posted 12 days ago , edited 12 days ago
http://jcs.biologists.org/content/94/2/299.short
Was trying to find something related to these 'dna chromosome' things and found this little gem.
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Posted 12 days ago , edited 12 days ago

fredreload wrote:

Sounds like an interesting nano material structure that can be explored, you sure there isn't more information about this sheath?


That article is a short summary of the main article which you probably have to pay money to get access to.
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This is something really interesting, as a (future) biologist I'm impressed with what they've discovered, studying something, specially DNA with that level of detail is amazing. Who knows what kind of discoveries this sheath could lead to
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Posted 12 days ago , edited 12 days ago

Gonikku wrote:

This is something really interesting, as a (future) biologist I'm impressed with what they've discovered, studying something, specially DNA with that level of detail is amazing. Who knows what kind of discoveries this sheath could lead to


You should find a bunch of interesting stuff here then: https://www.sciencedaily.com/news/health_medicine/human_biology/

https://www.sciencedaily.com/news/plants_animals/biology/

Enjoy
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As someone who has a genetic inversion that is unique to only me and my first daughter, as far as I know no one else in the World has the exact same genetic inversion that I do and it was only passed on to my first daughter and not my second one, I find this highly interesting. Especially since I was diagnosed with something called Williams syndrome which is caused by a deletion of about 26 genes from the long arm of chromosome 7 and severity of symptoms can range from mild to severe, like in cases of Down syndrome. However, when I was a Freshman in high school my Mom and I went to a small meeting of Williams syndrome kids and their parent's in the area that I live in that was conducted by a couple of doctors, and they did a cursory exam on the kids there, just a quick look over, and they realized that I had done better in school and had some slightly different physical characteristics than what is normal for someone with Williams syndrome, so they suggested to my Mom that I get a genetic test. Turns out that instead of having Williams syndrome one half of the pair of, or basically one side of, my chromosome 5 is inverted and pretty much looks like someone cut out the middle and turned it upside down before putting it back in. We have no idea which physical or mental characteristics are affected by this in me, like my personality or my slight heart murmur, since it's unique to just me and my daughter, or even how it happened as there are no genetic defects we know of that run in my family on either side, so it wasn't passed on to me from my Mom or my Dad. Since I've researched this kind of thing some in the past, I've seen pictures of chromosomes like that and have always wondered what that clear stuff was around it, since it didn't exactly look like part of the DNA itself. Now I know, and it hopefully might provide me with some answers of how my genetic inversion came to be in the future.
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Posted 11 days ago , edited 11 days ago

BlackRose0607 wrote:

As someone who has a genetic inversion that is unique to only me and my first daughter, as far as I know no one else in the World has the exact same genetic inversion that I do and it was only passed on to my first daughter and not my second one, I find this highly interesting. Especially since I was diagnosed with something called Williams syndrome which is caused by a deletion of about 26 genes from the long arm of chromosome 7 and severity of symptoms can range from mild to severe, like in cases of Down syndrome. However, when I was a Freshman in high school my Mom and I went to a small meeting of Williams syndrome kids and their parent's in the area that I live in that was conducted by a couple of doctors, and they did a cursory exam on the kids there, just a quick look over, and they realized that I had done better in school and had some slightly different physical characteristics than what is normal for someone with Williams syndrome, so they suggested to my Mom that I get a genetic test. Turns out that instead of having Williams syndrome one half of the pair of, or basically one side of, my chromosome 5 is inverted and pretty much looks like someone cut out the middle and turned it upside down before putting it back in. We have no idea which physical or mental characteristics are affected by this in me, like my personality or my slight heart murmur, since it's unique to just me and my daughter, or even how it happened as there are no genetic defects we know of that run in my family on either side, so it wasn't passed on to me from my Mom or my Dad. Since I've researched this kind of thing some in the past, I've seen pictures of chromosomes like that and have always wondered what that clear stuff was around it, since it didn't exactly look like part of the DNA itself. Now I know, and it hopefully might provide me with some answers of how my genetic inversion came to be in the future.


You might be interested to know that your DNA is not the same througout your entire body. As it replicates it changes slightly for some unknown reason. Perhaps its a defect or perhaps cell specialization encourages such things.

http://www.zmescience.com/medicine/genetic/dna-not-the-same-in-every-cell-of-body-045325/

Nature does odd things with DNA. Perhaps you were just another one of DNA's experiments to find new and better sequences. If you think about it the whole world had black hair except for some weird people around Scandinavian and Germany who had blond and red hair. It could be considered a defect or a genetic enhancement depending on how you look at it.
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Posted 11 days ago
Watch as 10 years from now, when I am in the middle of med school to become a nutritionist, a bombshell bigger then this drops and all that I've learned becomes irrelevant. :I

Glad to know about this little fact while I'm still a first year.
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Posted 11 days ago , edited 11 days ago

Lance_Clemings wrote:

Watch as 10 years from now, when I am in the middle of med school to become a nutritionist, a bombshell bigger then this drops and all that I've learned becomes irrelevant. :I

Glad to know about this little fact while I'm still a first year.


Actually I think nutritionists are going to become more important. Eating the correct building blocks are important to repairing and maintaining your body. Sadly my generation has a habit of eating the same thing all the time then drinking pop all day long so they lack any nutrients.

I eat healthy and I am super healthy. I see kids in high school that act and feel older than I am. It's pathetic.
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Posted 11 days ago

Rujikin wrote:


Lance_Clemings wrote:

Watch as 10 years from now, when I am in the middle of med school to become a nutritionist, a bombshell bigger then this drops and all that I've learned becomes irrelevant. :I

Glad to know about this little fact while I'm still a first year.


Actually I think nutritionists are going to become more important. Eating the correct building blocks are important to repairing and maintaining your body. Sadly my generation has a habit of eating the same thing all the time then drinking pop all day long so they lack any nutrients.

I eat healthy and I am super healthy. I see kids in high school that act and feel older than I am. It's pathetic.


Well, I mean that we discover something new, and so important, that it throws any old facts out the window and we have to rewrite all the textbooks again:P

And what you said is reason 1 out of 4 on why I do want to be a nutritionist. The other 3 is that it is interesting, it pays well, and that I have a burning vengeance to eradicate cancer off the face of human history for what it has done to my loved ones!!!


don't ask. It is a long tale of sadness and stupidity.
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