Post Reply Question about regeneration, microRNA
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Posted 2/5/17
I know there are many brilliant people on Cruchyroll that can answer my question.

If a lizard's tail is cut off, how does the lizard body knows it needs to grow a tail back, not a limb or anything else? Does it means the cell around the tail has memory of the dead ones?
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Posted 2/5/17
You can make a lizard grow an arm instead of a tail if you cut them both off then swap the stumps.
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Posted 2/5/17 , edited 2/17/17

HateKillingCamels wrote:

You can make a lizard grow an arm instead of a tail if you cut them both off then swap the stumps.


Well, with the lizards regeneration power I would speculate that it would either shed the arm off or transform it into a tail

Two speculations:
1. The lizards' cells around the tail remembers the tail structure like a linked network and attempts to regenerate the tail
2. The lizards' body fluid contains miRNA that becomes a growth factor for the lizards' cells around the tail and direct the cells into a tail structure to regenerate the tail

MicroRNA might also has to do with aging, that is how it turns the lizard stem cell into an aged tail cell

Story goes that these extracellular microRNA has to originate from somewhere, need a way to track these things. XRNA, microRNA, we need a universal term for these things

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XHqNS4M-_IY

So it is important to know where the extracellular microRNA or XRNA comes from and if it would turn normal tissue into scar tissue or healthy tissue through regeneration

https://record.umich.edu/articles/scientists-coax-stem-cells-form-3-d-mini-lungs

I should also note that anti-aging and regeneration are two different problems. While stem cells of an embryo can reproduce and grow into any organs, certain specialized cell of a grown man can hardly reproduce and result in scars

So, imagine the body like a complete puzzle, and every cell is a small piece of puzzle. The only way I know to test the significance of extracellular RNA is through a wound. Let's say your body is wounded, a callous would form first. Then there would be cell proliferation to create progenitor cell to replace the lost cell. Now all progenitor cells are the same, in order for the progenitor cell to grow into specialized cell of the wounded tissue on your body, it needs to receive an extracellular RNA from a not yet identified source into the specialized cell it needs to be. How do I know this? Because all progenitor cells are the same, and all specialized cells at a location are different. The cell on the top of your stomach is not the same as the cell on the bottom of your stomach simply because the shape of the stomach is not uniform, but they are both stomach cells. One of the stomach cell might shape like a triangle, the other would shape like a square, and the deciding factor for what it grows up to be is extracellular RNA.

With that in mind we know that at the wound spot, the extracellular RNA would enter the progenitor cell, we trace this progenitor cell to its origin, it might come from the spine, the brain, anywhere. Now we have a source that, like the mail delivery man, could deliver extracellular RNA to any place in the body. Then like an immortal jellyfish, we can instruct all the cells to grow to a younger version, maybe not jump back into a stem cell with Yamazaki factors, it is an awesome program from SALK by the way, but slowly grows into a younger version of yourself with some cells withered away like the tentacles achieving true immortality and reverse aging, god knows how many years this would take.

P.S Don't wound yourself for no reason, and don't wound at a place where it cannot regenerate

Correction, trace the extracellular RNA, not progenitor cell

Supporting document:
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/05/160506132306.htm


P.S It is unclear to me if XRNA to cell communication exist only if there is a wound. To be more precise, I believe immortal jellyfish is using the same mechanism for reverse aging, so by studying the immortal jellyfish we would gain more understanding as to XRNA and cell communication.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2kLSiE-eNjw

Well, we can't really have the jellyfish cell screaming at us something like I am going to grow younger with this XRNA instruction. Identifying the correct instruction could be a problem

For us, a direct jump to become IPSC cells is possible with Yamanaka factors and the SALK company is doing just that. But I probably wouldn't want to turn into a bunch of stem cells

https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=49&v=3r_p__9EHxU

"However, they caution that, due to the complexity of aging, these therapies may take up to 10 years to reach clinical trials." SALK

So, could immortal jellyfish be using Yamanaka factors to become yonger? I'll leave that for debate

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