Do you know japanese well read this its all japanese teaching
3.you offerd me 6,000000 yen how much is it!?Kidden numbers and money is at stage ...No telling!ok so you have read these phases right ok then guess what E means in japanese look back at exuse me the E is atually prounced upside down so it would be S or u read this convo to find out what there saying main charaters(kiki mirolo)
mirolo: Konnichiwa kiki- chan Sumimasen Onegai shimasu!!!!
Kiki:Oh Hai!!!!Onegai shimasu
mirolo:Do itashi mashite
kiki:O-namae o wa nan desu ka?
4.could you do it what did they say!!!!did it give you some pratice!! Good!!!!lets move on to mr.ms.mrs.and more..
SAN TO CHAN TO MS TO MR
some people in america or untied kingdom say Mr or Mrs or Ms and thats difrent from japanese learn this and you will be japanese in no time.
if you are an teacher or someone at job if you are lost say!!!!!!!!
umuin-san desu ka
yes you ask me what does that me desu is are umuin is the second name of the person name and san is mr ka is you!!!!!no try yours
if you still dont get it Example:
Teacher:(in japanese classs writeing report)
pupil yugchi:lamagachi-san desu ka?
when teacher said musuko desu that means He is my son If you read other that little convoerstaion i no you will get it .
Tomorokoshi/Corn and mazie
Welldone did you know these?
on 9 will be 13-20 but lets warm up?Here are Numbers from japanses langugae and yes these are the true words
What age are you ? how many people are in your family?
9.here is 13 to 20
Did this help you alot did it ok lets move on then for greetings
good morning/O'hayp gozimasu
How are you?/O genki desu ka?
your welcome/Do itashimashite
I dont under stand/wakarimasen
how much is it?/Ikuru desu ka?
Japanese Words - Basic Japanese Words - Japanese Words for travel - Japanese Words helpful phrases
Japanese Words: Here are some basic Japanese words and Japanese phrases that you could find very helpful on your travels to Japan. These are very easy to learn Japanese words. For a more detailed list of Japanese words see our Japanese Phrase Book.
こんにちは。 Konnichiwa. (kon-nee-chee-WAH)
How are you?
お元気ですか。 O-genki desu ka? (oh-GEN-kee dess-KAH?)
Fine, thank you.
元気です。 Genki desu. (GEN-kee dess)
What is your name?
お名前は何ですか。 O-namae wa nan desu ka? (oh-NAH-mah-eh wah NAHN dess-KAH?)
My name is ____ .
私の名前は ____ です。 Watashi no namae wa ____ desu. (wah-TAH-shee no nah-mah-eh wa ____ dess)
Nice to meet you.
始めまして。 Hajimemashite. (hah-jee-meh-MOSH-teh)
お願いします。 Onegai shimasu. (oh-neh-gigh shee-moss)
どうぞ。 Dōzo. (DOH-zo)
どうもありがとう。 Dōmo arigatō. (doh-moh ah-ree-GAH-toh)
どういたしまして。 Dō itashi mashite. (doh EE-tah-shee mosh-teh)
はい。 Hai. (HIGH)
いいえ。 Iie. (EE-eh)
すみません。 Sumimasen. (soo-mee-mah-sen)
御免なさい。 Gomen-nasai. (goh-men-nah-sigh)
IMPROVE YOUR JAPANESE
The best way to improve your Japanese is to use it regularly. The best way to use your Japanese regularly is to talk to native Japanese who are interested in developing their English skills. This way you improve your language skills, help them with their English and make new friends at the same time.
Japanese Lifestyle Friends is the ideal way to find language partners, both male and female. It is great to have friends in Japan so when you travel there, you can meet them and they can show you around. This way you can experience the real Japan that you would normally miss as a tourist.
さようなら。 Sayōnara. (sa-YOH-nah-rah)
それでは。 Sore dewa. (SOH-reh deh-wah)
I can't speak Japanese [well].
日本語「よく」話せません。 Nihongo [yoku] hanasemasen. (nee-hohn-goh [yo-koo] hah-nah-seh-mah-sen)
Do you speak English?
英語を話せますか。 Eigo o hanasemasuka? (AY-goh oh hah-nah-seh-moss-KAH?)
Is there someone here who speaks English?
だれか英語を話せますか。 Dareka eigo o hanasemasuka? (dah-reh-kah AY-goh oh hah-nah-seh-moss-KAH?)
たすけて! Tasukete! (tah-soo-keh-teh!)
あぶない! Abunai! (ah-boo-NIGH!)
おはようございます。 Ohayō gozaimasu. (oh-hah-YOH go-zigh-moss)
こんばんは。 Konbanwa. (kohm-bahn-wah)
Good night (to sleep)
おやすみなさい。 Oyasuminasai. (oh-yah-soo-mee-nah-sigh)
I don't understand.
わかりません。 Wakarimasen. (wah-kah-ree-mah-sen)
Where is the toilet?
トイレはどこですか。 Toire wa doko desu ka? (toy-reh wah DOH-koh dess kah?)
For a more detailed list of Japanese words see our Japanese Phrase Book.
(Article based on Wikitravel article by Based on work by Paul N. Richter, Keith K. Higa and Ted O'Neill and Wikitravel user(s) Jpatokal, Cjensen, っ, Sekicho, KagakuyaSan, Nickpest, Nzpcmad, Rai koku and PierreAbbat. Article used under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 1.0.)
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Tokyo (東京 Tōkyō; "Eastern Capital"?), officially Tokyo Metropolis (東京都 Tōkyō-to?), is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan. It is located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo Metropolis was formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture (Tokyo-fu) and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is the capital of Japan, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, and the largest metropolitan area of Japan. It is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, and the home of the Japanese Imperial Family.
The Tokyo Metropolitan government administers the twenty-three special wards of Tokyo, each governed as a city, that cover the area that was the city of Tokyo as well as 39 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture and the two outlying island chains. Metropolitan The population of the special wards is over 8 million people, with the total population of the prefecture exceeding 13 million. The prefecture is the world's most populous metropolitan area with 35 to 39 million people (depending on definition) and the world's largest metropolitan economy with a GDP of US$1.479 trillion at purchasing power parity in 2008.
Tokyo was described by Saskia Sassen as one of the three "command centers" for the world economy, along with New York City and London. This city is considered an alpha+ world city, listed by the GaWC's 2008 inventory and ranked fourth among global cities by Foreign Policy's 2008 Global Cities Index. In 2009 Tokyo was named the world's most expensive city for expatriate employees, according to the Mercer and Economist Intelligence Unit cost-of-living surveys  and named the third Most Liveable City and the World’s Most Livable Megalopolis by the magazine Monocle.
3 Geography and administrative divisions
3.1 Special wards
3.2 Western Tokyo
3.2.2 Districts, towns and villages
3.4 National parks
10 In Popular Culture
12 Sister relationships
13 See also
15 External links
Tokyo was originally known as Edo, meaning "estuary". Its name was changed to Tokyo (Tōkyō: tō (east) + kyō (capital)) when it became the imperial capital in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital ('京') in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was also called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same Chinese characters representing "Tokyo". Some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei". However, this pronunciation is now obsolete.
Main article: History of Tokyo
Tokyo was originally a small fishing village named Edo. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu made Edo his base and when he became shogun in 1603, the town became the center of his nationwide military government. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century.
It became the de facto capital of Japan even while the emperor lived in Kyoto, the imperial capital. After about 263 years, the shogunate was overthrown under the banner of restoring imperial rule. In 1869, the 17-year-old Emperor Meiji moved to Edo. Tokyo was already the nation's political and cultural center, and the emperor's residence made it a de facto imperial capital as well with the former Edo Castle becoming the Imperial Palace. The city of Tokyo was established, and continued to be the capital until it was abolished as a municipality in 1943 and merged with the "Metropolitan Prefecture" of Tokyo.
Central Tokyo, like Osaka, has been designed since about 1900 to be centered around major train stations in a high-density fashion, so suburban railways were built relatively cheaply at street level and with their own right-of-way. This differs from many cities in the United States that are low-density and automobile-centric. Though expressways have been built in Tokyo, the basic design has not changed.
Tokyo went on to suffer two major catastrophes in the 20th century, but it recovered from both. One was the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, which left 140,000 dead or missing, and the other was World War II. The bombing of Tokyo in 1944 and 1945, with 75,000 to 200,000 killed and half of the city destroyed, was almost as devastating as the atomic bombs of Hiroshima and Nagasaki combined.
Ginza during the allied occupation period
After the war, Tokyo was completely rebuilt, and was showcased to the world during the 1964 Summer Olympics. The 1970s brought new high-rise developments such as Sunshine 60, a new and controversial airport at Narita in 1978 (some distance outside city limits), and a population increase to about 11 million (in the metropolitan area).
Tokyo's subway and commuter rail network became one of the busiest in the world as more and more people moved to the area. In the 1980s, real estate prices skyrocketed during a real estate and debt bubble. The bubble burst in the early 1990s, and many companies, banks, and individuals were caught with mortgage backed debts while real estate was shrinking in value. A major recession followed, making the 1990s Japan's "lost decade" from which it is now slowly recovering.
Tokyo still sees new urban developments on large lots of less profitable land. Recent projects include Ebisu Garden Place, Tennozu Isle, Shiodome, Roppongi Hills, Shinagawa (now also a Shinkansen station), and the Marunouchi side of Tokyo Station. Buildings of significance are demolished for more up-to-date shopping facilities such as Omotesando Hills.
Land reclamation projects in Tokyo have also been going on for centuries. The most prominent is the Odaiba area, now a major shopping and entertainment center. Various plans have been proposed for transferring national government functions from Tokyo to secondary capitals in other regions of Japan, in order to slow down rapid development in Tokyo and revitalize economically lagging areas of the country. These plans have been controversial within Japan and have yet to be realized.
Geography and administrative divisions
Main articles: Politics of Tokyo and List of mergers in Tokyo
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
The mainland portion of Tokyo lies northwest of Tokyo Bay and measures about 90 km east to west and 25 km north to south. Chiba Prefecture borders it to the east, Yamanashi to the west, Kanagawa to the south, and Saitama to the north. Mainland Tokyo is further subdivided into the special wards (occupying the eastern half) and the Tama area (多摩地域) stretching westwards.
Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building
Also within the administrative boundaries of Tokyo Metropolis are two island chains in the Pacific Ocean directly south: the Izu Islands, and the Ogasawara Islands, which stretch more than 1,000 km away from the mainland. Because of these islands and mountainous regions to the west, Tokyo's overall population density figures far underrepresent the real figures for urban and suburban regions of Tokyo.
Under Japanese law, Tokyo is designated as a to (都), translated as metropolis. Its administrative structure is similar to that of Japan's other prefectures. Within Tokyo lie dozens of smaller entities, including many cities, the twenty-three special wards, districts, towns, villages, a quasi-national park, and a national park. The twenty-three special wards (特別区 -ku), which until 1943 comprised the city of Tokyo, are now separate, self-governing municipalities, each having a mayor, a council, and the status of a city.
In addition to these 23 special wards, Tokyo also includes 26 more cities (市 -shi), five towns (町 -chō or machi), and eight villages (村 -son or -mura), each of which has a local government. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government is headed by a publicly elected governor and metropolitan assembly. Its headquarters are in the ward of Shinjuku. They govern all of Tokyo, including lakes, rivers, dams, farms, remote islands, and national parks in addition to its neon jungles, skyscrapers and crowded subways.
A map of Tokyo's 23 Special wards
The special wards (tokubetsu-ku) of Tokyo comprise the area formerly incorporated as Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, Tokyo City was merged with Tokyo Prefecture (東京府 Tōkyō-fu?) forming the current "metropolitan prefecture". As a result, unlike other city wards in Japan, these wards are not part of any larger incorporated city. Each ward is a municipality with its own elected mayor and assembly like the other cities of Japan. The wards differ from other cities in having a unique administrative relationship with the prefectural government. Certain municipal functions, such as waterworks, sewerage, and fire-fighting, are handled by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. To pay for the added administrative costs, the prefecture collects municipal taxes, which would usually be levied by the city.
The special wards of Tokyo are:
The "three core wards" of Tokyo are Chiyoda, Chūō and Minato.
A map of cities in western part of Tokyo
To the west of the special wards, Tokyo Metropolis consists of cities, towns and villages that enjoy the same legal status as those elsewhere in Japan.
While serving as "bed towns" for those working in central Tokyo, some of these also have a local commercial and industrial base. Collectively, these are often known as the Tama Area or Western Tokyo.
Twenty-six cities lie within the western part of Tokyo:
The Tokyo Metropolitan Government has designated Hachiōji, Tachikawa, Machida, Ōme and Tama New Town as regional centers of the Tama area, as part of their plans to disperse urban functions away from central Tokyo.
Districts, towns and villages
The far west is occupied by the district (gun) of Nishitama. Much of this area is mountainous and unsuitable for urbanization. The highest mountain in Tokyo, Mount Kumotori, is 2,017 m high; other mountains in Tokyo include Takasu (1737 m), Odake (1266 m), and Mitake (929 m). Lake Okutama, on the Tama River near Yamanashi Prefecture, is Tokyo's largest lake.
Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park
Tokyo has numerous outlying islands, which extend as far as 1850 km from central Tokyo. Because of the islands' distance from the administrative headquarters of the metropolitan government in Shinjuku, local offices administer them.
The Izu Islands are a group of volcanic islands and form part of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park. The islands in order from closest to Tokyo are Izu Ōshima, Toshima, Niijima, Shikinejima, Kozushima, Miyakejima, Mikurajima, Hachijojima, and Aogashima. Izu Ōshima and Hachijojima are towns. The remaining islands are six villages, with Niijima and Shikinejima forming one village.
The Ogasawara Islands include, from north to south, Chichi-jima, Nishinoshima, Haha-jima, Kita Iwo Jima, Iwo Jima, and Minami Iwo Jima. Ogasawara also administers two tiny outlying islands: Minami Torishima, the easternmost point in Japan and at 1,850 km the most distant island from central Tokyo, and Okino Torishima, the southernmost point in Japan. The last island is contested by the People's Republic of China as being only uninhabited rocks. The Iwo chain and the outlying islands have no permanent population, but host Japanese Self-Defense Forces personnel. Local populations are only found on Chichi-jima and Haha-jima. The islands form the village of Ogasawara.
There are several national parks within Tokyo, among them:
Meiji no Mori Takao Quasi-National Park, around Mount Takao to the south of Hachiōji
Ogasawara National Park. As of 2006, efforts were being made to make Ogasawara National Park a UNESCO natural World Heritage Site.
Ueno Park, well known for its museums: Tokyo National Museum, National Science Museum, Shitamachi Museum and National Museum for Western Art, among others. There are also art works and statues at several places in the park.
This section requires expansion.
Tokyo was hit by powerful earthquakes in 1703, 1782, 1812, 1855 and 1923. The 1923 earthquake, with an estimated magnitude of 8.3, killed 142,000 people.
Tokyo lies in the humid subtropical climate zone (Koppen climate classification Cfa), with hot humid summers and generally mild winters with cool spells. The region, like much of Japan, experiences a one-month seasonal lag, with the warmest month being August, which averages 27.5 °C (81.5 °F), and the coolest month being January, averaging 6.0 °C (42.8 °F). Annual rainfall averages nearly 1,470 millimetres (57.9 in), with a wetter summer and a drier winter. Snowfall is sporadic, but does occur almost annually. Tokyo also often sees typhoons each year, though few are strong. The last one to hit was Fitow in 2007.
[hide]Climate data for Tokyo (1971-2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 9.8
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.0
Average low °C (°F) 2.1
Precipitation mm (inches) 48.6
% Humidity 50 51 57 62 66 73 75 72 72 66 60 53 63
Avg. snowy days 2.7 3.5 2.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.7 9.1
Sunshine hours 180.5 161.1 159.2 164.9 180.9 120.1 147.5 177.5 112.9 129.9 141.4 171.1 1,847.2
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency  2009-06-08
Tokyo has enacted a measure to cut greenhouse gases. Governor Shintaro Ishihara created Japan's first emissions cap system, aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emission by a total of 25 percent by 2020 from the 2000 level.
Tokyo is an example of an urban heat island, and the phenomenon is especially serious in its special wards. According to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, the annual mean temperature has increased by about 3°C over the past 100 years. Tokyo has been cited as a "convincing example of the relationship between urban growth and climate."
Population of Tokyo
Juveniles (age 0-14)
Working (age 15-64)
Retired (age 65+)
1.461 million (11.8%)
8.546 million (69.3%)
2.332 million (18.9%)
1 Estimates as of October 1, 2007.
² as of January 1, 2007.
³ as of 2005 National Census.
4 as of January 1, 2006.
As of October 2007, the official intercensal estimate showed 12.79 million people in Tokyo with 8.653 million living within Tokyo's 23 wards. During the daytime, the population swells by over 2.5 million as workers and students commute from adjacent areas. This effect is even more pronounced in the three central wards of Chiyoda, Chūō, and Minato, whose collective population as of the 2005 National Census was 326,000 at night, but 2.4 million during the day.
The entire prefecture had 12,790,000 residents in October 2007 (8,653,000 in 23 wards), with an increase of over 3 million in the day. Tokyo is at its highest population ever, while that of the 23 wards peak official count was 8,893,094 in the 1965 Census, with the count dipping below 8 million in the 1995 Census. People continue to move back into the core city as land prices have fallen dramatically.
As of 2005, the most common foreign nationalities found in Tokyo are Chinese (123,661), Korean (106,697), Filipino (31,077), American (18,848), British (7,696), Brazilian (5,300) and French (3,000).
The 1889 Census  recorded 1,389,600 people in Tokyo City, Japan's largest city at the time.
Tokyo Stock Exchange, the second largest in the world by market capitalization
Bank of Japan
Shiodome City Center in Minato, headquarters of All Nippon Airways and Fujitsu
Japan Airlines headquarters in Shinagawa
Tokyo is one of the three world finance "command centers", along with New York City and London. Tokyo has the largest metropolitan economy in the world. According to a study conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers, the Tokyo urban area (35.2 million people) had a total GDP of US$1.479 trillion in 2008 (at purchasing power parity), which topped the list. As of 2008, 47 of the companies listed on the Global 500 are based in Tokyo, almost twice that of the second-placed city (Paris).
Tokyo is a major international finance center, houses the headquarters of several of the world's largest investment banks and insurance companies, and serves as a hub for Japan's transportation, publishing, and broadcasting industries. During the centralized growth of Japan's economy following World War II, many large firms moved their headquarters from cities such as Osaka (the historical commercial capital) to Tokyo, in an attempt to take advantage of better access to the government. This trend has begun to slow due to ongoing population growth in Tokyo and the high cost of living there.
Tokyo was rated by the Economist Intelligence Unit as the most expensive (highest cost-of-living) city in the world for 14 years in a row ending in 2006. This analysis is for living a corporate executive lifestyle, with items like a detached house and several automobiles.
The Tokyo Stock Exchange is Japan's largest stock exchange, and second largest in the world by market capitalization and fourth largest by share turnover. In 1990 at the end of the Japanese asset price bubble, it accounted for more than 60% of the world stock market value. Tokyo had 8,460 ha (20,900 acres) of agricultural land as of 2003, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, placing it last among the nation's prefectures. The farmland is concentrated in Western Tokyo. Perishables such as vegetables, fruits, and flowers can be conveniently shipped to the markets in the eastern part of the prefecture. Japanese leaf spinach and spinach are the most important vegetables; as of 2000, Tokyo supplied 32.5% of the Japanese leaf spinach sold at its central produce market.
With 36% of its area covered by forest, Tokyo has extensive growths of cryptomeria and Japanese cypress, especially in the mountainous western communities of Akiruno, Ōme, Okutama, Hachiōji, Hinode, and Hinohara. Decreases in the price of lumber, increases in the cost of production, and advancing old age among the forestry population have resulted in a decline in Tokyo's output. In addition, pollen, especially from cryptomeria, is a major allergen for the nearby population centers.
Tokyo Bay was once a major source of fish. Presently, most of Tokyo's fish production comes from the outer islands, such as Izu Ōshima and Hachijōjima. Skipjack tuna, nori, and aji are among the ocean products.
Tourism in Tokyo is also a contributor to the economy.
Main article: Transportation in Greater Tokyo
Map of Tokyo Subway system
Tokyo, as the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, is Japan's largest domestic and international hub for rail, ground, and air transportation. Public transportation within Tokyo is dominated by an extensive network of clean and efficient trains and subways run by a variety of operators, with buses, monorails and trams playing a secondary feeder role.
Within Ōta, one of the 23 special wards, Tokyo International Airport ("Haneda") offers mainly domestic flights. Outside Tokyo, Narita International Airport, in Chiba Prefecture, is the major gateway for international travelers to Japan and Japan Airlines, All Nippon Airways, Air Japan and Delta Air Lines all have a hub at this airport.
Various islands governed by Tokyo have their own airports. Hachijōjima (Hachijojima Airport), Miyakejima (Miyakejima Airport), and Izu Ōshima (Oshima Airport) have service to Tokyo International and other airports.
Rail is the primary mode of transportation in Tokyo, which has the most extensive urban railway network in the world and an equally extensive network of surface lines. JR East operates Tokyo's largest railway network, including the Yamanote Line loop that circles the center of downtown Tokyo. Two organizations operate the subway network: the private Tokyo Metro and the governmental Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation. The metropolitan government and private carriers operate bus routes. Local, regional, and national services are available, with major terminals at the giant railroad stations, including Tokyo, Shinagawa, and Shinjuku.
Expressways link the capital to other points in the Greater Tokyo area, the Kantō region, and the islands of Kyūshū and Shikoku.
Other transportation includes taxis operating in the special wards and the cities and towns. Also long-distance ferries serve the islands of Tokyo and carry passengers and cargo to domestic and foreign ports.
Main article: Education in Tokyo
University of Tokyo, Yasuda Auditorium
Tokyo has many universities, junior colleges, and vocational schools. Many of Japan's most prestigious universities are in Tokyo, including University of Tokyo, Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Waseda University, and Keio University. Some of the biggest national universities located in Tokyo are:
University of Electro-Communications
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
University of Tokyo
Tokyo Medical and Dental University
Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology
Tokyo Gakugei University
Tokyo University of the Arts
Tokyo Institute of Technology
Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
There is only one non-national public university: Tokyo Metropolitan University.
There are also a few universities well-known for classes conducted in English and for the teaching of the Japanese language. They include:
International Christian University
Temple University Japan
For an extensive list, see List of universities in Tokyo.
Publicly run kindergartens, elementary schools (years 1 through 6), and junior high schools (7 through 9) are operated by local wards or municipal offices. Public high schools in Tokyo are run by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education and are called "Metropolitan High Schools". Regardless, Tokyo has many private schools from kindergarten through high school.
Tokyo National Museum, Ueno
Tokyo has many museums. In Ueno Park, there are four national museums: Tokyo National Museum, the country's largest museum and specializing in traditional Japanese art; the National Museum of Western Art; and the Tokyo National Museum of Modern Art, with its collections of Japanese modern art as well as over 40,000 Japanese and foreign films. Also, in Ueno Park are the National Museum of Science and the public zoo. Other museums include the Nezu Art Museum in Aoyama; the Edo-Tokyo Museum in Sumida across the Sumida River from the center of Tokyo; and the National Diet Library, National Archives, and the National Museum of Modern Art, which are located near the Imperial Palace.
Tokyo has many theaters for the performing arts as well. These include national and private theaters for traditional forms of Japanese drama (like noh and kabuki) as well as modern dramas. Symphony orchestras and other musical organizations perform modern and traditional music. Tokyo also hosts modern Japanese and international pop and rock music at venues ranging in size from intimate clubs to internationally known arenas like the Nippon Budokan.
Many different festivals occur throughout Tokyo. Major events include the Sannō at Hie Shrine, the Sanja at Asakusa Shrine, and the biennial Kanda Festivals. The last features a parade with elaborately decorated floats and thousands of people. Annually on the last Saturday of July, an enormous fireworks display over the Sumida River attracts over a million viewers. Once cherry blossoms, or sakura, bloom in spring, many residents gather in Ueno Park, Inokashira Park, and the Shinjuku Gyoen National Garden for picnics under the blossoms.
Harajuku, a neighborhood in Shibuya, is known internationally for its youth style and fashion.
Cuisine in Tokyo is internationally acclaimed. In November 2007, Michelin released their guide for fine dining in Tokyo, garnering 191 stars in total, or about twice as many as its nearest competitor, Paris. Eight establishments were awarded the maximum of three stars (Paris has 10), 25 received two stars, and 117 earned one star. Of the eight top-rated restaurants, three offer traditional Japanese fine dining, two are sushi houses and three serve French cuisine.
Tokyo Dome, the home stadium for the Yomiuri Giants
Ryōgoku Kokugikan sumo wrestling arena
Main article: Sports in Tokyo
Tokyo, with a diverse array of sports, is home to two professional baseball clubs, the Yomiuri Giants who play at the Tokyo Dome and Tokyo Yakult Swallows at Meiji-Jingu Stadium. The Japan Sumo Association is also headquartered in Tokyo at the Ryōgoku Kokugikan sumo arena where three official sumo tournaments are held annually (in January, May, and September). Football (soccer) clubs in Tokyo include F.C. Tokyo and Tokyo Verdy 1969, both of which play at Ajinomoto Stadium in Chōfu.
Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics. National Stadium, also known as Olympic Stadium, Tokyo is host to a number of international sporting events. With a number of world-class sports venues, Tokyo often hosts national and international sporting events such as tennis tournaments, swim meets, marathons, American football exhibition games, judo, karate, etc. Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium, in Sendagaya, Shibuya, is a large sports complex that includes swimming pools, training rooms, and a large indoor arena.
In Popular Culture
Fuji TV headquarters
As the largest population center in Japan and the location of the country's largest broadcasters and studios, Tokyo is frequently the setting for many Japanese movies, television shows, animated series (anime), web comics, and comic books (manga). In the kaiju (monster movie) genre, landmarks of Tokyo are routinely destroyed by giant monsters such as Godzilla.
Some Hollywood directors have turned to Tokyo as a filming location for movies set in Tokyo. Well-known examples from the postwar era include Tokyo Joe, My Geisha, and the James Bond film You Only Live Twice; well-known contemporary examples include Kill Bill, The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift and Lost in Translation.
Japanese films that use Tokyo as their setting include:
Daremo Shirenai (Nobody Knows) (2004)
Tokyo Zombie (2005)
Tenten (Adrift in Tokyo) (2007)
Architecture in Tokyo has largely been shaped by Tokyo's history. Twice in recent history has the metropolis been left in ruins: first in the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake and later after extensive firebombing in World War II. Because of this, Tokyo's current urban landscape is one of modern and contemporary architecture, and older buildings are scarce.
Tokyo also contains numerous parks and gardens.
Panoramic view of Shinjuku and Mount Fuji taken from Bunkyo Civic Center.
Panoramic view of Tokyo Imperial Palace as seen from Marunouchi.
Sakura in Tokyo Imperial Palace.
Portion of city from the Tokyo Imperial Palace.
Tokyo has eleven sister cities/states:
New South Wales, Australia
New York City, United States
São Paulo State, Brazil
Seoul, South Korea
In addition, Tokyo has a "partnership" agreement with London, United Kingdom.
Capital of Japan — for discussion of the de jure or de facto status of Tokyo as capital
1703 Genroku earthquake
^ a b c d "Population of Tokyo". Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
^ "Geography of Tokyo". Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Retrieved 2008-10-18.
^ a b "Global city GDP rankings 2008-2025". Pricewaterhouse Coopers. Retrieved 27 November 2009.
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Anime (アニメ?, an abbreviated pronunciation in Japanese of "animation", pronounced [anime] ( listen) in Japanese, but typically /ˈænəˌmeɪ/ (help·info) or /ˈænəˌmə/ in English) is animation originating in Japan. The world outside Japan regards anime as "Japanese animation". Anime originated about 1917.
While the earliest known Japanese animation dates from 1917, and many original Japanese cartoons were produced in the ensuing decades, the characteristic anime style developed in the 1960s - notably with the work of Osamu Tezuka - and became known outside Japan in the 1980s.
Anime, like manga, has a large audience in Japan and recognition throughout the world. Distributors can release anime via television broadcasts, directly to video, or theatrically, as well as online.
Both hand-drawn and computer-animated anime exist. It is used in television series, films, video, video games, commercials, and internet-based releases, and represents most, if not all, genres of fiction. Anime gained early[when?] popularity in East and Southeast Asia and has garnered more-recent popularity in the Western World.
2.1 Word usage
3 Visual characteristics
3.1 Character design
3.1.2 Eye styles
3.1.3 Facial expressions
3.2 Animation technique
5 Influence on world culture
5.1 Anime and American audiences
6 See also
8 External links
Main article: History of anime
Screenshot from Momotaro's Divine Sea Warriors (1944), the first feature-length anime film
Anime began at the start of the 20th century, when Japanese filmmakers experimented with the animation techniques also pioneered in France, Germany, the United States, and Russia. The oldest known anime in existence first screened in 1917 – a two-minute clip of a samurai trying to test a new sword on his target, only to suffer defeat. Early pioneers included Shimokawa Oten, Jun'ichi Kouchi, and Seitarō Kitayama.
By the 1930s animation became an alternative format of storytelling to the live-action industry in Japan. But it suffered competition from foreign producers and many animators, such as Noburō Ōfuji and Yasuji Murata still worked in cheaper cutout not cel animation, although with masterful results. Other creators, such as Kenzō Masaoka and Mitsuyo Seo, nonetheless made great strides in animation technique, especially with increasing help from a government using animation in education and propaganda. The first talkie anime was Chikara to Onna no Yo no Naka, produced by Masaoka in 1933. The first feature length animated film was Momotaro's Divine Sea Warriors directed by Seo in 1945 with sponsorship by the Imperial Japanese Navy.
The success of The Walt Disney Company's 1937 feature film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs influenced Japanese animators. In the 1960s, manga artist and animator Osamu Tezuka adapted and simplified many Disney animation-techniques to reduce costs and to limit the number of frames in productions. He intended this as a temporary measure to allow him to produce material on a tight schedule with inexperienced animation-staff.
The 1970s saw a surge of growth in the popularity of manga – many of them later animated. The work of Osamu Tezuka drew particular attention: he has been called a "legend" and the "god of manga". His work – and that of other pioneers in the field – inspired characteristics and genres that remain fundamental elements of anime today. The giant robot genre (known as "Mecha" outside Japan), for instance, took shape under Tezuka, developed into the Super Robot genre under Go Nagai and others, and was revolutionized at the end of the decade by Yoshiyuki Tomino who developed the Real Robot genre. Robot anime like the Gundam and The Super Dimension Fortress Macross series became instant classics in the 1980s, and the robot genre of anime is still one of the most common in Japan and worldwide today. In the 1980s, anime became more accepted in the mainstream in Japan (although less than manga), and experienced a boom in production. Following a few successful adaptations of anime in overseas markets in the 1980s, anime gained increased acceptance in those markets in the 1990s and even more at the turn of the 21st century.
Japanese write the English term "animation" in katakana as アニメーション (animēshon, pronounced [animeːɕoɴ]), and it is widely assumed[by whom?] that the term アニメ (anime, pronounced [anime] ( listen) in Japanese) emerged in the 1970s as an abbreviation. Others claim that the word derives from the French phrase dessin animé. Japanese-speakers use both the original and abbreviated forms interchangeably, but the shorter form occurs more commonly.
The pronunciation of anime in Japanese, [anime], differs significantly from the Standard English /ˈænɪmeɪ/, which has different vowels and stress. (In Japanese each mora carries equal stress.) As with a few other Japanese words such as saké, Pokémon, and Kobo Abé, English-language texts sometimes spell anime as animé (as in French), with an acute accent over the final e, to cue the reader to pronounce the letter, not to leave it silent as English orthography might suggest.
In Japan, the term anime does not specify an animation's nation of origin or style; instead, it serves as a blanket term to refer to